Applications with keyword: Easy handling

Application L1802

Epoxidation reactions with in-situ formed percarboxylic acids were enhanced by heterogeneous catalysis and optimized with respect to product yield. The authors concluded that “SpinChem RBR, was beneficial, in terms of eliminating mass transfer limitations, it enabled a simpler collection and recycling of the catalyst and minimized mechanical wear of the solid catalyst”.

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    Adriana Freites Aguilera, Pasi Tolvanen, Shuyana Heredia, Marta González Muñoz, Tina Samson, Adrien Oger, Antoine Verove, Kari Eränen, Sebastien Leveneur, Jyri-Pekka Mikkola, Tapio Salmi
    Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research, 57 (2018) 3876-3886

Application 1029

The performance and robustness of the SpinChem® rotating bed reactor (RBR) technology was examined and compared to a fixed bed reactor (FBR) using ANSYS Fluent. By means of flow simulations through loosely packed beds, the RBR was found to be extremely robust with respect to the level of packing of the solid phase within, while the FBR was negatively affected by channelling.

Products: SpinChem® RBR S2
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    ANSYS Fluent was used to make simulations of a spinning RBR and a stationary FBR with the same geometry. The simulated bed was in both cases split into two halves so that a loosely packed region could be modelled alongside an optimally packed region. The flow rate determined for the RBR at optimal packing was pumped through the FBR for all degrees of packing. Homogeneous packing was simulated by assigning the region a specific permeability coefficient corresponding to that of an ion exchange resin of uniform particle size. This value served as a reference value for the simulations, and corresponds to a pressure drop of 0.054 bar/m for water at 20°C with a linear velocity of 1 mm/s. Moderate and severe channelling was assigned specific permeability values corresponding to 133% and 200% of that of the reference, respectively.

Application 1028

The SpinChem® MagRBR ECR screening kit, pre-packed with Purolite® Lifetech™ resins, was used to screen six different enzyme carrier resins in parallel for the immobilization of lipase CalB. Easy sampling and monitoring of the process, together with effortless handling, established the MagRBR as a time and labour efficient screening device.

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    Conditions: The enzyme solution was prepared for each type of resin according to the protocols outlined in the SpinChem guidelines for enzyme immobilization (available at www.spinchem.com/support). Each MagRBR contained 0.5 mL of ECR carrier resin, and was spun in enzyme supernatant at 500 rpm for 24 h. To monitor the immobilization process, enzymatic activity in the supernatant was measured at five points during a 24 h timespan to determine the amount of residual enzyme in the solution. The enzymatic activity was determined using a lipase activity test based on the transformation of p-nitrophenylbutyrate to p-nitrophenol and butyric acid. The reaction was quantified by the use of a spectrometer through an increase in absorbance at 450 nm due to the conversion into the products.

Application 1027

Six different immobilized lipases were screened in parallel for the esterification of lauric acid into propyl laurate using the pre-packed SpinChem® MagRBR Lipase screening kit. The process proved fast and simple, as efficient sampling and monitoring of the process was achieved without filtration steps, by keeping the immobilized catalyst confined inside the MagRBR.

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    Conditions: Six MagRBRs, each packed with 0.5 mL of one of the immobilized enzymes, were spun in parallel on a six-position magnetic plate at 500 rpm for 1 h in preheated (60°C) substrate solution containing lauric acid (8.01 g, 40 mmol/vial), 1-propanol (2.4 g, 40 mmol/vial), and water (0.32 g, 18 mmol/vial). Samples were collected at 0, 10, 20, 30 and 60 min. Analysis of the propyl laurate product was done using GC-FID after 1:50 dilution in heptane containing internal standards (tetradecane). Formation of propyl laurate over time for esterification reactions catalysed by immobilized lipases CalB (lipase B from Candida antarctica), CalA (lipase A from Candida antarctica), TL (lipase from Thermomyces lanuginosa), RM (lipase from Rhizomucor miehei), CR (lipase from Candida rugosa) and PS (lipase from Pseudomonas cepacia).

Application 1025

Video showing the formation of alginate beads under conditions mimicking whole cell encapsulation. The use of a SpinChem® rotating bed reactor (RBR) allowed easy collection, maturing and washing of the alginate beads. With the RBR setup, it was possible to immediately continue with filling of the reaction substrate into the same vessel, thus reducing the number of handling steps and facilitating bead recycling. The beads showed no signs of physical wear after use in the RBR.

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    Conditions: A SpinChem® S2 RBR with only outer filter was rotated at 50 rpm in an aqueous calcium chloride solution (200 mL, 50 mM) in a SpinChem® V2 flower-baffled reaction vessel, while an alginate solution (3.6%) mixed 1:1 with a simulated cell suspension consisting of 50 mM phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) coloured with methylene blue (100 mg/L), was added dropwise through a fine-tipped needle. The alginate beads formed instantaneously and were slowly drawn into the RBR where they were solidified for 10 min, after which the rotational speed was increased to 300 rpm and the vessel was drained from solution, washed with fresh aqueous calcium chloride solution and drained again. Pure water was added to mimic a substrate solution and finally the RBR was stopped and emptied from alginate beads which was observed to have an intact round morphology.

Application 1023

Poster describing the screening of resins with immobilized enzymes for esterification reactions. The screening was performed with prepacked cartridges inside a SpinChem® rotating bed reactor (RBR) and compared to parallel screening with prototype disposable magnetic RBR (MagRBR) in 10 mL volume. Both approaches were very quick, required minimum preparation and no filtration. Up-scaled processes enabled quick enzyme recycling, opening for the possibility of semi-continuous processes with attractive production economy.

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    Conditions: This poster contains data from several reactions with immobilized enzymes performed at different conditions. The details of each reaction are displayed under each figure in the poster. This poster was presented at BioTrans2017 - the 13th international symposium on biocatalysis and biotransformations, in Budapest, Hungary, the 9th to 13th of July, 2017.

Application 1022

Convenient transfer hydrogenation catalysed by palladium-containing beads was performed using a SpinChem® rotating bed reactor (RBR). The set-up resulted in high product conversions throughout more than 10 consecutive batches without any need for filtration to recycle the catalyst.

Application 1021

Video showing how a SpinChem® rotating bed reactor (RBR) for use in 20-300 L vessels was charged with solid particles, used for pH neutralization, drained from reaction liquid and finally emptied from solid phase without opening the RBR. This procedure illustrates one approach to using RBR in production scale equipment without opening the reaction vessel.

Products: SpinChem® RBR S5
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    Conditions: A SpinChem® rotating bed reactor (RBR) S511 was used in a 38 cm diameter cylindrical reaction vessel filled with 60 L water containing phenolphthalein as pH indicator. To this 2 L of ion exchange beads (IRN 99 H+, about 500 µm particle size) were added, followed by 0.5 L NaOH (1 M). During loading and reaction the RBR was spinning at 200 rpm, whereas 50 rpm was used during draining and unloading. The RBR was emptied by spraying water from nozzles in three baffles installed within the reaction vessel.

Application 1017

The soon-to-be launched cartridge for SpinChem® rotating bed reactor (RBR) will make solid phase material handling with the RBR even more convenient. This video shows the product development and includes screen shots of the CAD modelling, a time lapse of the 3D printing process plus a preview of the final product placed into the RBR.

Products: SpinChem® RBR S2
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    Conditions: A fused deposition modelling 3D printer was used to construct a cartridge for the RBR S221. The cartridge placed into the RBR was injection molded and equipped with filters.

Application 1016

Video showing how a SpinChem® rotating bed reactor (RBR) was charged with solid particles, followed by draining and replacing the reaction liquid without escape of solids. Lastly, the solid phase was removed without opening the RBR. This procedure illustrates a concept for automatic handling of solid phases in production scale equipment without opening the reaction vessel.

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    Conditions: A SpinChem® rotating bed reactor (RBR) S221 within a SpinChem® flower-baffled reaction vessel V221 filled with 150 mL water and 15 mL ion exchange beads (IRN 99 H+, about 500 µm particle size). This 1 min video was edited down from a 2 min real-time process.

Application 1014

Time lapse video showing how straightforward it is to use immobilized enzymes in a rotating bed reactor. A substrate giving a yellow coloured product was used to follow the reaction progress of an ester hydrolysis by an immobilized lipase. This substrate is commonly used to screen and characterize lipases.

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    Conditions: 4-nitrophenyl octanoate (30 mg) in aqueous phosphate buffer (150 mL, 0.1 M, pH 7.4, 0.1% Triton X100) was hydrolysed at 30 °C using Purolite® CalB immoplus™ (150 mg) filled into a SpinChem® rotating bed reactor (RBR) S221 rotating at 500 rpm within a SpinChem® flower-baffled reaction vessel V211. The reaction was monitored for 30 min by filming the formation of the yellow 4-nitrophenoxide product (abs. max. ca 405 nm).

Application 1010

Photos showing how grinding caused by stirring of molecular sieves can be completely avoided by using a rotating bed reactor (RBR). Molecular sieves contained in a RBR for a 200 mL vessel can theoretically hold 0.23 moles of water. This allows synthesis of product in the range of 100 gram by ester condensation or drying of 25 litres of analytical grade organic solvent.

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    Conditions: Molecular sieve (3 Å, rods 3-5 mm, 15 g), placed either into a SpinChem® S221 rotating bed reactor (RBR) or free in solution agitated by a 3-blade stainless steel propeller (5 cm), both operated at 500 rpm within a SpinChem® V211 flower-baffled reaction vessel containing isopropanol (130 mL). Photos were taken after 24 hours of operation with the RBR and stirrer in place, respectively. The theoretical calculation assumed an RBR with space for 20 g molecular sieve with a 20% (w/w) water adsorption capacity, a synthesis yield of 99%, a product weight of 450 g/mol, and an organic solvent with a density of 0.8 kg/L and an initial moisture content of 200 ppm; data partly taken from literature; J. Org. Chem. 2010 (75) 8351-8354.