Applications with keyword: Ion exchange

Application L1802

Epoxidation reactions with in-situ formed percarboxylic acids were enhanced by heterogeneous catalysis and optimized with respect to product yield. The authors concluded that “SpinChem RBR, was beneficial, in terms of eliminating mass transfer limitations, it enabled a simpler collection and recycling of the catalyst and minimized mechanical wear of the solid catalyst”.

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    Adriana Freites Aguilera, Pasi Tolvanen, Shuyana Heredia, Marta González Muñoz, Tina Samson, Adrien Oger, Antoine Verove, Kari Eränen, Sebastien Leveneur, Jyri-Pekka Mikkola, Tapio Salmi
    Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research, 57 (2018) 3876-3886

Application 1030

The performance of a SpinChem® rotating bed reactor (RBR) in the treatment of highly viscous solutions was compared to that of a conventional stirred tank reactor (STR). Both reactor set-ups were used for the extraction of Allura red dye from a glycerol-dye mixture using an ion exchange resin. The RBR removed 10 times the amount of dye in just over 40 % of the time, compared to the STR. This comparison underlines the efficient mixing and clever design of the SpinChem® RBR, as well as the broad spectrum of applications for which this technology is highly relevant.

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    Conditions: Glycerol (80%, wt) was mixed with dH2O and Allura red (20 mg/L). The mixture was kept at a temperature of 10°C to achieve a viscosity of around 0.116 · 10¯³ m²/s. A SpinChem® RBR S3 was filled with 41.6 g macroporous strong base anion exchange resin (Purolite® A500 MB Plus) and spun in 1 L of the mixture at 400 rpm. For the STR experiment, 41.6 g of the same ion exchange resin was suspended in 1 L of the viscous dye solution, and stirred by means of an impeller at 400 rpm. Samples for absorbance measurements were taken over time and analysed using UV-Vis spectroscopy.

Application 9003

Two dyes were selectively extracted onto different adsorbents within the same run using a SpinChem® rotating bed reactor (RBR) and an EasyMax™ 102 Advanced synthesis workstation. This experiment illustrates performing cascade reaction for one-pot multi-step synthesis.

Products: SpinChem® RBR S2
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    Conditions: Allura red (60 μM) and methylene blue (31 μM) in deionized water (about 120 mL) were adsorbed onto Purolite® A500Plus (13 mL, 300-1200 μm) and Purosorb™ PAD700 (13 mL, 350-1200 μm), respectively. Each adsorbent was filled into two of the four compartments in a SpinChem® S2 rotating bed reactor (RBR) operated at 500 rpm within an EasyMax™ 102 Advanced synthesis workstation.

Application 1021

Video showing how a SpinChem® rotating bed reactor (RBR) for use in 20-300 L vessels was charged with solid particles, used for pH neutralization, drained from reaction liquid and finally emptied from solid phase without opening the RBR. This procedure illustrates one approach to using RBR in production scale equipment without opening the reaction vessel.

Products: SpinChem® RBR S5
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    Conditions: A SpinChem® rotating bed reactor (RBR) S511 was used in a 38 cm diameter cylindrical reaction vessel filled with 60 L water containing phenolphthalein as pH indicator. To this 2 L of ion exchange beads (IRN 99 H+, about 500 µm particle size) were added, followed by 0.5 L NaOH (1 M). During loading and reaction the RBR was spinning at 200 rpm, whereas 50 rpm was used during draining and unloading. The RBR was emptied by spraying water from nozzles in three baffles installed within the reaction vessel.

Application 1015

Time lapse video demonstrating a prototype vehicle capable of processing two cubic metres of coloured water within five minutes. The raft was carrying two rotating bed reactors that neutralized the basic surface water in a square pond by ion exchange.

Products: SpinChem® RBR S4
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    Conditions: A pond containing tap water (2000 L), sodium hydroxide (150 mL, 1 M), and phenolphthalein (0.8 g) was neutralized within five minutes by two prototype rotating bed reactors, containing a total of 960 mL IRN99 H+ ion exchange resin, attached to a remote controlled floating prototype vehicle maneuvered across the water surface. The project was a cooperation between SpinChem, Umeå University and MTC centre for environmental technology.

Application 1009

Video illustrating how a mixture of red and blue dyes with different chemical properties can be selectively extracted onto different adsorbents within the same run using a rotating bed reactor (RBR). The dyes were separated based on ionic and hydrophobic interactions, respectively.

Products: SpinChem® RBR S2
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    Conditions: Allura red (40 µM) and methylene blue (13 µM) in deionized water (about 160 mL) were adsorbed onto Amberlite IRA900 Cl (13 mL, 650-820 µm) and Amberlite XAD1600N (13 mL, 400±50 µm), respectively. Each adsorbent was filled into two of the four compartments in a SpinChem® S221 rotating bed reactor (RBR) operated at 800 rpm within a SpinChem® V221 flower-baffled reaction vessel. The total extraction time for one run was nine minutes and the video contains photos of the adsorbents before and after two repeated extractions.

Application 1007

Video showing the principle of an automated rotating bed reactor system capable of filling a solution, neutralizing it by ion exchange and draining it. By microcomputer control, unattended semi-continuous batch processing was accomplished for many cycles until the ion exchanger was completely saturated.

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    Conditions: Neutralization of about 500 mL water with 0.63 mM NaOH and 110 mg/L phenolphthalein within a SpinChem® S311 flower-baffled reaction vessel, using a SpinChem® RBR S311 containing 50 mL Amberlite IRN99 at 500 rpm. The automated sequence included filling to level sensor, starting the overhead stirrer motor, stopping stirrer motor when absorbance probe recorded a clear solution, opening the bottom valve until vessel was empty and finally closing the bottom valve to get ready for a new cycle. The entire sequence was controlled by a microcomputer allowing a preset number of cycles to be executed without manual interaction.

Application 1006

Video revealing the efficient mass transfer and resulting shorter reaction time with a rotating bed reactor (RBR) during ion-exchange neutralization of a base. The reaction with the RBR finished 30% faster and left a completely clear solution without any particles.

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    Conditions: Neutralization of sodium hydroxide (1 M, 200 µL) by cation exchanger Amberlite IRN99 (20 mL) placed either in a SpinChem® S311 rotating bed reactor (RBR) or distributed in solution agitated by a 5 cm impeller, both operated at 800 rpm within a SpinChem® V311 flower-baffled reaction vessel containing 800 mL water with phenolphthalein (20 mg/L). The reaction with RBR finished after 23 s versus 33s for the stirred tank reactor with impeller.

Application 1004

Log-log plot of how viscosity affects the reaction time for a mass transfer limited reaction at a fixed rotational speed of a rotating bed reactor (RBR). The RBR behaved very predictably and delivered reaction times that increased linearly with reaction media viscosity up to at least 500 mPa·s.

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    Conditions: Time for neutralization of sodium hydroxide (2 M, 50 µL) by acidic cation exchanger (Amberlite IRN 99, 20 mL) packed into a SpinChem® RBR S311 rotated at 500 rpm within a SpinChem® V311 flower baffled reaction vessel containing 500 mL solution consisting of 0-90% glycerol in water to adjust viscosity. The reaction was followed at two different temperatures (10 °C and 30 °C). Neutralization time was determined manually with 3-9 repeated measurements per viscosity using phenolphthalein (10 mg) as indicator. Viscosity was taken as standard tabulated values from J.B. Segur et al. in Ind. Eng. Chem 43 (1951) 2117. Median relative standard deviations of reaction time was 5.3% but had a tendency to increase at the highest viscosities.

Application 1003

Illustrative video showing how a phenolic colourant is deprotonated and extracted from an organic to an aqueous solvent. Using SpinChem® RBR in a flower-baffled reaction vessel created fine emulsion droplets resulting in effective phase-transfer between the two liquids and the solid phase.

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    Conditions: Red 2,6-dichloroindophenol (about 3 mg) in dichloromethane (70 mL) with water (70 mL) converted to its blue phenolate anion using Purolite A500P (25 mL) in OH form (created by treating Cl form with NaOH) packed into a SpinChem® RBR S221 rotating at 500 rpm in a SpinChem® V211 flower-baffled reaction vessel.

Application 1001

Investigation of how rotational speed influences the efficiency of rotating bed reactors (RBR) for a diversity of processes such as adsorption, neutralization and ammonolysis. It was demonstrated how reaction rates could reach a plateau with the SpinChem® RBR when mass transfer efficiency exceeded reaction speed.

Application L1702

A rotating bed reactor containing ion exchange beads was modeled in flower-baffled reaction vessels. It was shown that the baffles are vital for reducing surface vortexes and circular flow within the vessel. The authors concluded that the flow rates through the packed bed and reaction rates tend to increase with deeper baffles.

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    Hilde Larsson, Patrick Alexander Schjøtt Andersen, Emil Byström, Krist V. Gernaey, Ulrich Krühne
    Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research, 56 (2017) 3853-3865