Applications with keyword: Organic molecules

Application L1802

Epoxidation reactions with in-situ formed percarboxylic acids were enhanced by heterogeneous catalysis and optimized with respect to product yield. The authors concluded that “SpinChem RBR, was beneficial, in terms of eliminating mass transfer limitations, it enabled a simpler collection and recycling of the catalyst and minimized mechanical wear of the solid catalyst”.

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    Adriana Freites Aguilera, Pasi Tolvanen, Shuyana Heredia, Marta González Muñoz, Tina Samson, Adrien Oger, Antoine Verove, Kari Eränen, Sebastien Leveneur, Jyri-Pekka Mikkola, Tapio Salmi
    Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research, 57 (2018) 3876-3886

Application 1027

Six different immobilized lipases were screened in parallel for the esterification of lauric acid into propyl laurate using the pre-packed SpinChem® MagRBR Lipase screening kit. The process proved fast and simple, as efficient sampling and monitoring of the process was achieved without filtration steps, by keeping the immobilized catalyst confined inside the MagRBR.

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    Conditions: Six MagRBRs, each packed with 0.5 mL of one of the immobilized enzymes, were spun in parallel on a six-position magnetic plate at 500 rpm for 1 h in preheated (60°C) substrate solution containing lauric acid (8.01 g, 40 mmol/vial), 1-propanol (2.4 g, 40 mmol/vial), and water (0.32 g, 18 mmol/vial). Samples were collected at 0, 10, 20, 30 and 60 min. Analysis of the propyl laurate product was done using GC-FID after 1:50 dilution in heptane containing internal standards (tetradecane). Formation of propyl laurate over time for esterification reactions catalysed by immobilized lipases CalB (lipase B from Candida antarctica), CalA (lipase A from Candida antarctica), TL (lipase from Thermomyces lanuginosa), RM (lipase from Rhizomucor miehei), CR (lipase from Candida rugosa) and PS (lipase from Pseudomonas cepacia).

Application L1801

Degradation of the pharmaceutical compound ibuprofen by ozone, was optimized in batch type reactors with and without zeolite based heterogeneous catalysts. The rotating bed reactor technology increased the concentrations of dissolved gas compared to traditional stirred tank reactors and allowed convenient handling of the catalyst particles without any filtration.

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    Soudabeh Saeid, Pasi Tolvanen, Narendra Kumar, Kari Eränen, Janne Peltonen, Markus Peurla, Jyri-Pekka Mikkola, Andreas Franz, Tapio Salmi
    Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, 230 (2018) 77-90

Application 9002

The stable reaction environment in the EasyMax™ 102 Advanced synthesis workstation and the high flow rates through the SpinChem® RBR allowed for quick and convenient screening of different immobilized lipases to find the enzyme most suitable for further reaction optimization.

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    Conditions: A SpinChem® S2 RBR fitted with cartridges (4×2 mL) containing one enzyme at a time from Purolite® Lifetech™ lipase kit, was rotated at 500 rpm in a preheated (60 °C) substrate solution containing lauric acid (84.1 g), 1-propanol (31.5 mL) and water (3.36 mL). Analysis of propyl laurate product was accomplished by GC-FID after 1:50 dilution in heptane containing internal standard (tetradecane). Reactions were repeated twice.

Application 9003

Two dyes were selectively extracted onto different adsorbents within the same run using a SpinChem® rotating bed reactor (RBR) and an EasyMax™ 102 Advanced synthesis workstation. This experiment illustrates performing cascade reaction for one-pot multi-step synthesis.

Products: SpinChem® RBR S2
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    Conditions: Allura red (60 μM) and methylene blue (31 μM) in deionized water (about 120 mL) were adsorbed onto Purolite® A500Plus (13 mL, 300-1200 μm) and Purosorb™ PAD700 (13 mL, 350-1200 μm), respectively. Each adsorbent was filled into two of the four compartments in a SpinChem® S2 rotating bed reactor (RBR) operated at 500 rpm within an EasyMax™ 102 Advanced synthesis workstation.

Application 9001

Immobilized catalyst recycling using a SpinChem® rotating bed reactor (RBR) and a Mettler-Toledo EasyMax™ 102 Advanced synthesis workstation. The process proved very time efficient as no filtration steps were needed between cycles, or for the samples extracted for analysis during each run. Washing of the resin between runs was fast, simple and robust, without running the risk of material loss.

Products: SpinChem® RBR S2
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    Conditions: A SpinChem® S2 RBR containing Novozyme 435 (1 g), was rotated at 500 rpm in a preheated (30 °C) substrate solution containing 2-Ethyl-1-hexanol (5.21 g), Vinyl acetate (3.44 mL) and heptane (110 mL). The reaction was repeated for seven cycles, and samples for each run were taken after 0, 10, 20, 30 and 60 min. Analysis of 2-Ethylhexyl acetate product was done suing GC-FID after 1:9 dilution in heptane containing internal standard (tetradecane, 50 mmol). Between cycles, the resin was washed by spinning the RBR in heptane for 1 min.

Application 1026

Accelerated video showing the removal of methylene blue from 50 L volume of liquid, by adsorption onto activated carbon in a production scale rotating bed reactor (RBR). The decolouration process removed 99.96% of the dye within 10 minutes with a logarithmic decline of concentration as documented by analysis of withdrawn samples.

Products: SpinChem® RBR S5
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    Conditions: Adsorption of methylene blue (20 g, 400 mg/L) onto activated carbon (7 L, 20-50 mesh) placed in a SpinChem® S511 rotating bed reactor (RBR) operated at 200 rpm within a 38 cm diameter cylindrical reaction vessel containing 50 L water and equipped with three baffles placed along the edges. Samples were withdrawn every half minute and analysed by light adsorption without any need for filtration. The video is shown at 20x speed.

Application 1024

Comparison of rotating bed reactor (RBR) technology and fixed bed reactor (FBR) column during activated carbon decolourization. The more efficient use of the adsorbent with a SpinChem® RBR enabled completion of the process within 40% of the time at the same material amount or allowed reduction to 50% material while still being able to finish the process within the same time as the FBR.

Application 1023

Poster describing the screening of resins with immobilized enzymes for esterification reactions. The screening was performed with prepacked cartridges inside a SpinChem® rotating bed reactor (RBR) and compared to parallel screening with prototype disposable magnetic RBR (MagRBR) in 10 mL volume. Both approaches were very quick, required minimum preparation and no filtration. Up-scaled processes enabled quick enzyme recycling, opening for the possibility of semi-continuous processes with attractive production economy.

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    Conditions: This poster contains data from several reactions with immobilized enzymes performed at different conditions. The details of each reaction are displayed under each figure in the poster. This poster was presented at BioTrans2017 - the 13th international symposium on biocatalysis and biotransformations, in Budapest, Hungary, the 9th to 13th of July, 2017.

Application 1022

Convenient transfer hydrogenation catalysed by palladium-containing beads was performed using a SpinChem® rotating bed reactor (RBR). The set-up resulted in high product conversions throughout more than 10 consecutive batches without any need for filtration to recycle the catalyst.

Application 1019

Poster on study of catalyst recycling during esterification and transesterification reactions with immobilized lipases in rotating bed reactors. Data from several laboratories showed that no attrition or grinding occurred and that no filtration was necessary between reaction cycles. The production capacity was estimated to 50 kilograms per gram of catalyst thanks to the high catalyst stability.

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    Conditions: This study comprised several different laboratories, immobilized enzymes, and conditions for performing esterification and transesterification reactions using a SpinChem® rotating bed reactor (RBR). The details of every reaction are displayed in connection to each figure on the poster. This poster was displayed at Biocat2016 - the 8th international congress on biocatalysis, at Hamburg University of Technology, Germany, August 28th to September 1st, 2016.

Application 1014

Time lapse video showing how straightforward it is to use immobilized enzymes in a rotating bed reactor. A substrate giving a yellow coloured product was used to follow the reaction progress of an ester hydrolysis by an immobilized lipase. This substrate is commonly used to screen and characterize lipases.

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    Conditions: 4-nitrophenyl octanoate (30 mg) in aqueous phosphate buffer (150 mL, 0.1 M, pH 7.4, 0.1% Triton X100) was hydrolysed at 30 °C using Purolite® CalB immoplus™ (150 mg) filled into a SpinChem® rotating bed reactor (RBR) S221 rotating at 500 rpm within a SpinChem® flower-baffled reaction vessel V211. The reaction was monitored for 30 min by filming the formation of the yellow 4-nitrophenoxide product (abs. max. ca 405 nm).

Application 1012

Time lapse video illustrating how an externally connected rotating bed reactor (RBR) can pump and process large liquid volumes by the convective flow created by the spinning RBR. The concept enables handling of volumes at least 10-100 times larger than the external vessel, thus facilitating installation of RBR technology into existing plant equipment.

Products: SpinChem® RBR S2
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    Conditions: A water filled (2 L) connected system consisting of a tank (1 L) to which an external flower baffled vessel (200 mL) was connected via pipes (24.6 mm ID). A SpinChem® rotating bed reactor (RBR) S221 filled with activated carbon (28 mL, 20-50 mesh) was placed in the external vessel and rotated at 1000 rpm adsorbing dissolved methylene blue (40 mg) within 14 minutes.

Application 1009

Video illustrating how a mixture of red and blue dyes with different chemical properties can be selectively extracted onto different adsorbents within the same run using a rotating bed reactor (RBR). The dyes were separated based on ionic and hydrophobic interactions, respectively.

Products: SpinChem® RBR S2
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    Conditions: Allura red (40 µM) and methylene blue (13 µM) in deionized water (about 160 mL) were adsorbed onto Amberlite IRA900 Cl (13 mL, 650-820 µm) and Amberlite XAD1600N (13 mL, 400±50 µm), respectively. Each adsorbent was filled into two of the four compartments in a SpinChem® S221 rotating bed reactor (RBR) operated at 800 rpm within a SpinChem® V221 flower-baffled reaction vessel. The total extraction time for one run was nine minutes and the video contains photos of the adsorbents before and after two repeated extractions.

Application 1008

Accelerated video showing the enhanced adsorption rates of methylene blue onto activated carbon using a rotating bed reactor (RBR) compared to a stirred tank reactor (STR). The RBR decolourized the solution almost twice as fast, did not create any visible fines and required no filtration.

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    Conditions: Adsorption of methylene blue (100 mg) onto activated carbon (40 mL, 12-40 mesh) placed either in a SpinChem® S311 rotating bed reactor (RBR) or stirred free in solution agitated by a 5 cm impeller, both operated at 800 rpm within a SpinChem® V311 flower-baffled reaction vessel containing 1000 mL water at room temperature. The video is shown at 12x the normal speed. The solution was decolourized after 5 minutes with the RBR, versus close to 10 minutes with the stirred tank reactor (STR). Samples from the RBR set-up required no filtration, but from the STR all samples required filtration through a 45 µm syringe filter for analysis.

Application 1004

Log-log plot of how viscosity affects the reaction time for a mass transfer limited reaction at a fixed rotational speed of a rotating bed reactor (RBR). The RBR behaved very predictably and delivered reaction times that increased linearly with reaction media viscosity up to at least 500 mPa·s.

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    Conditions: Time for neutralization of sodium hydroxide (2 M, 50 µL) by acidic cation exchanger (Amberlite IRN 99, 20 mL) packed into a SpinChem® RBR S311 rotated at 500 rpm within a SpinChem® V311 flower baffled reaction vessel containing 500 mL solution consisting of 0-90% glycerol in water to adjust viscosity. The reaction was followed at two different temperatures (10 °C and 30 °C). Neutralization time was determined manually with 3-9 repeated measurements per viscosity using phenolphthalein (10 mg) as indicator. Viscosity was taken as standard tabulated values from J.B. Segur et al. in Ind. Eng. Chem 43 (1951) 2117. Median relative standard deviations of reaction time was 5.3% but had a tendency to increase at the highest viscosities.

Application 1003

Illustrative video showing how a phenolic colourant is deprotonated and extracted from an organic to an aqueous solvent. Using SpinChem® RBR in a flower-baffled reaction vessel created fine emulsion droplets resulting in effective phase-transfer between the two liquids and the solid phase.

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    Conditions: Red 2,6-dichloroindophenol (about 3 mg) in dichloromethane (70 mL) with water (70 mL) converted to its blue phenolate anion using Purolite A500P (25 mL) in OH form (created by treating Cl form with NaOH) packed into a SpinChem® RBR S221 rotating at 500 rpm in a SpinChem® V211 flower-baffled reaction vessel.

Application 1002

Comparison of SpinChem® rotating bed reactor (RBR) with traditional reaction set-ups for a demanding biotransformation. SpinChem® RBR matched or outperformed the other systems and gave a 10 to 25-fold more time-efficient recycling of the encapsulated cells.

Products: SpinChem® RBR S3
Application brochure

Brochure with SpinChem® rotating bed reactors (RBR) – applications, products and technology. Learn from examples how to increase speed and convenience for heterogeneous reactions in laboratory development and production scale. Read about the capabilities and handling benefits with pre-packed cartridges.

Application L1705

A comprehensive review of biocatalysis covering how the recent advances in engineering of enzymes, substrates, media and reactor design contributes to a sustainable chemistry development. The authors wrote that SpinChem® RBR technology “combines the advantages of a stirred tank with those of a packed bed” thus giving benefits by “circumventing mechanical attrition of the biocatalyst” while “mass transfer is greatly accelerated”.

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    Roger A. Sheldon, John M. Woodley
    Chemical Reviews, 117 (2017) in press

Application L1704

A tutoral review taking a holistic approach to the engineering of biotransformations utilising isolated enzymes. The authors highlighted SpinChem® RBR technology benefits and wrote; “… in addition to protecting the biocatalyst from shear forces caused by the stirrer, it greatly accelerates mass transfer, thus affording substantially higher reaction rates and creating the possibility to use much smaller reactors”.

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    Roger A. Sheldon, Pedro C. Pereira
    Chemical Society Reviews, 46 (2017) 2678-2691

Application L1703

A traditional stirred tank reactor setup was compared to a rotating bed reactor (RBR) for the biocatalytic synthesis of the anti-inflammatory drug (S)-naproxen. Both setups performed well during five repetitive bathes giving an enantiomeric excess of 99% and an isolated yield of 92%, but the RBR was easier to handle and the authors concluded that “… the rotating bed reactor concept can be regarded as a promising option for industrial applications”.

Products: SpinChem® RBR S2
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    M. Aßmann, A. Stöbener, C. Mügge, S. K. Gaßmeyer, L. Hilterhaus, R. Kourist, A. Liese, S. Kara
    Reaction Chemistry & Engineering, 2 (2017) 531-540

Application L1701

Katarzyna Szymańska, Klaudia Odrozek, Aurelia Zniszczoł, Wojciech Pudło, Andrzej B. Jarzębski
Chemical Engineering Journal, 315 (2017) 18-24

Products: SpinChem® RBR S2
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    Katarzyna Szymańska, Klaudia Odrozek, Aurelia Zniszczoł, Wojciech Pudło, Andrzej B. Jarzębski
    Chemical Engineering Journal, 315 (2017) 18-24

Application L1606

Jochen Wachtmeister, Dörte Rother
Current Opinion in Biotechnology, 42 (2016) 169-177

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    Jochen Wachtmeister, Dörte Rother
    Current Opinion in Biotechnology, 42 (2016) 169-177

Application L1602

Jochen Wachtmeister, Philip Mennicken, Andreas Hunold, Dörte Rother
ChemCatChem, 8 (2016) 607-614

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    Jochen Wachtmeister, Philip Mennicken, Andreas Hunold, Dörte Rother
    ChemCatChem, 8 (2016) 607-614

Application L1402

A synthesis of N-Boc (2R)-1,4-oxazepane-2-carboxylic acid was developed in 39% yield over seven steps starting from methyl (2R)-glycidate. The key step was a lipase-catalyzed regioselective lactamization performed using SpinChem® rotating bed reactor that simplified work up and recycling of the enzyme.

Products: SpinChem® RBR S3
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    Carl-Johan Aurell, Staffan Karlsson, Fritiof Pontén, Søren M. Andersen
    Organic Process Research & Development, 18 (2014) 1116-1119

Application L1301

Hendrik Mallin, Jan Muschiol, Dr. Emil Byström, Prof. Dr. Uwe T. Bornscheuer
ChemCatChem, 5 (2013) 3529-3532

Products: SpinChem® RBR S3
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    Hendrik Mallin, Jan Muschiol, Dr. Emil Byström, Prof. Dr. Uwe T. Bornscheuer
    ChemCatChem, 5 (2013) 3529-3532