Applications with keyword: Technology

Application 1030

The performance of a SpinChem® rotating bed reactor (RBR) in the treatment of highly viscous solutions was compared to that of a conventional stirred tank reactor (STR). Both reactor set-ups were used for the extraction of Allura red dye from a glycerol-dye mixture using an ion exchange resin. The RBR removed 10 times the amount of dye in just over 40 % of the time, compared to the STR. This comparison underlines the efficient mixing and clever design of the SpinChem® RBR, as well as the broad spectrum of applications for which this technology is highly relevant.

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    Conditions: Glycerol (80%, wt) was mixed with dH2O and Allura red (20 mg/L). The mixture was kept at a temperature of 10°C to achieve a viscosity of around 0.116 · 10¯³ m²/s. A SpinChem® RBR S3 was filled with 41.6 g macroporous strong base anion exchange resin (Purolite® A500 MB Plus) and spun in 1 L of the mixture at 400 rpm. For the STR experiment, 41.6 g of the same ion exchange resin was suspended in 1 L of the viscous dye solution, and stirred by means of an impeller at 400 rpm. Samples for absorbance measurements were taken over time and analysed using UV-Vis spectroscopy.

Application 1029

The performance and robustness of the SpinChem® rotating bed reactor (RBR) technology was examined and compared to a fixed bed reactor (FBR) using ANSYS Fluent. By means of flow simulations through loosely packed beds, the RBR was found to be extremely robust with respect to the level of packing of the solid phase within, while the FBR was negatively affected by channelling.

Products: SpinChem® RBR S2
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    ANSYS Fluent was used to make simulations of a spinning RBR and a stationary FBR with the same geometry. The simulated bed was in both cases split into two halves so that a loosely packed region could be modelled alongside an optimally packed region. The flow rate determined for the RBR at optimal packing was pumped through the FBR for all degrees of packing. Homogeneous packing was simulated by assigning the region a specific permeability coefficient corresponding to that of an ion exchange resin of uniform particle size. This value served as a reference value for the simulations, and corresponds to a pressure drop of 0.054 bar/m for water at 20°C with a linear velocity of 1 mm/s. Moderate and severe channelling was assigned specific permeability values corresponding to 133% and 200% of that of the reference, respectively.

Application 9003

Two dyes were selectively extracted onto different adsorbents within the same run using a SpinChem® rotating bed reactor (RBR) and an EasyMax™ 102 Advanced synthesis workstation. This experiment illustrates performing cascade reaction for one-pot multi-step synthesis.

Products: SpinChem® RBR S2
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    Conditions: Allura red (60 μM) and methylene blue (31 μM) in deionized water (about 120 mL) were adsorbed onto Purolite® A500Plus (13 mL, 300-1200 μm) and Purosorb™ PAD700 (13 mL, 350-1200 μm), respectively. Each adsorbent was filled into two of the four compartments in a SpinChem® S2 rotating bed reactor (RBR) operated at 500 rpm within an EasyMax™ 102 Advanced synthesis workstation.

Application 1026

Accelerated video showing the removal of methylene blue from 50 L volume of liquid, by adsorption onto activated carbon in a production scale rotating bed reactor (RBR). The decolouration process removed 99.96% of the dye within 10 minutes with a logarithmic decline of concentration as documented by analysis of withdrawn samples.

Products: SpinChem® RBR S5
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    Conditions: Adsorption of methylene blue (20 g, 400 mg/L) onto activated carbon (7 L, 20-50 mesh) placed in a SpinChem® S511 rotating bed reactor (RBR) operated at 200 rpm within a 38 cm diameter cylindrical reaction vessel containing 50 L water and equipped with three baffles placed along the edges. Samples were withdrawn every half minute and analysed by light adsorption without any need for filtration. The video is shown at 20x speed.

Application 1025

Video showing the formation of alginate beads under conditions mimicking whole cell encapsulation. The use of a SpinChem® rotating bed reactor (RBR) allowed easy collection, maturing and washing of the alginate beads. With the RBR setup, it was possible to immediately continue with filling of the reaction substrate into the same vessel, thus reducing the number of handling steps and facilitating bead recycling. The beads showed no signs of physical wear after use in the RBR.

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    Conditions: A SpinChem® S2 RBR with only outer filter was rotated at 50 rpm in an aqueous calcium chloride solution (200 mL, 50 mM) in a SpinChem® V2 flower-baffled reaction vessel, while an alginate solution (3.6%) mixed 1:1 with a simulated cell suspension consisting of 50 mM phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) coloured with methylene blue (100 mg/L), was added dropwise through a fine-tipped needle. The alginate beads formed instantaneously and were slowly drawn into the RBR where they were solidified for 10 min, after which the rotational speed was increased to 300 rpm and the vessel was drained from solution, washed with fresh aqueous calcium chloride solution and drained again. Pure water was added to mimic a substrate solution and finally the RBR was stopped and emptied from alginate beads which was observed to have an intact round morphology.

Application 1024

Comparison of rotating bed reactor (RBR) technology and fixed bed reactor (FBR) column during activated carbon decolourization. The more efficient use of the adsorbent with a SpinChem® RBR enabled completion of the process within 40% of the time at the same material amount or allowed reduction to 50% material while still being able to finish the process within the same time as the FBR.

Application 1021

Video showing how a SpinChem® rotating bed reactor (RBR) for use in 20-300 L vessels was charged with solid particles, used for pH neutralization, drained from reaction liquid and finally emptied from solid phase without opening the RBR. This procedure illustrates one approach to using RBR in production scale equipment without opening the reaction vessel.

Products: SpinChem® RBR S5
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    Conditions: A SpinChem® rotating bed reactor (RBR) S511 was used in a 38 cm diameter cylindrical reaction vessel filled with 60 L water containing phenolphthalein as pH indicator. To this 2 L of ion exchange beads (IRN 99 H+, about 500 µm particle size) were added, followed by 0.5 L NaOH (1 M). During loading and reaction the RBR was spinning at 200 rpm, whereas 50 rpm was used during draining and unloading. The RBR was emptied by spraying water from nozzles in three baffles installed within the reaction vessel.

Application 1020

Computational fluid dynamics simulations is an important tool in the optimization of geometries during development of SpinChem® rotating bed reactor (RBR) products. The image shows velocity vectors in a cross section of the flow around a SpinChem® RBR, in a flower baffled reaction vessel, simulated using ANSYS Fluent software under typical laboratory conditions.

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    Conditions: The flow was simulated in ANSYS Fluent 17.1 using the steady MRF model at 500 rpm and the SST k-omega turbulence model on a mesh of 0.96 million elements. All dimensions used was identical to the SpinChem® RBR S221 and closely matched the SpinChem® flower baffled reaction vessel V221.

Application 1016

Video showing how a SpinChem® rotating bed reactor (RBR) was charged with solid particles, followed by draining and replacing the reaction liquid without escape of solids. Lastly, the solid phase was removed without opening the RBR. This procedure illustrates a concept for automatic handling of solid phases in production scale equipment without opening the reaction vessel.

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    Conditions: A SpinChem® rotating bed reactor (RBR) S221 within a SpinChem® flower-baffled reaction vessel V221 filled with 150 mL water and 15 mL ion exchange beads (IRN 99 H+, about 500 µm particle size). This 1 min video was edited down from a 2 min real-time process.

Application 1015

Time lapse video demonstrating a prototype vehicle capable of processing two cubic metres of coloured water within five minutes. The raft was carrying two rotating bed reactors that neutralized the basic surface water in a square pond by ion exchange.

Products: SpinChem® RBR S4
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    Conditions: A pond containing tap water (2000 L), sodium hydroxide (150 mL, 1 M), and phenolphthalein (0.8 g) was neutralized within five minutes by two prototype rotating bed reactors, containing a total of 960 mL IRN99 H+ ion exchange resin, attached to a remote controlled floating prototype vehicle maneuvered across the water surface. The project was a cooperation between SpinChem, Umeå University and MTC centre for environmental technology.

Application 1013

Short video of a coloured dye front moving in a transparent liquid through a pipe connecting an external rotating bed reactor to a larger vessel. The total convective flow rate was calculated to 440 L/h based on linear progression of the dye and assuming steady state turbulent conditions at Reynolds number 7900.

Products: SpinChem® RBR S2
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    Conditions: A water filled (2 L) connected system consisting of a tank (1 L) to which an external flower baffled vessel (200 mL) was connected via pipes (24.6 mm ID). A SpinChem® rotating bed reactor (RBR) S221 filled with activated carbon (28 mL, 20-50 mesh) was placed in the external vessel and started rotating at 1000 rpm. Maximum velocity (Umax) in the middle of the bottom horizontal pipe was measured by following the movement of methylene blue (1 mL, 40 mg) by means of counting video frames, yielding a linear flow of 0.32 m/s. From the linear flow rate and the kinematic viscosity of water at 20 °C, Reynolds number in the pipe was calculated to 7900, indicating a predominantly turbulent flow for which the velocity profile is represented by U=Umax(1-r/R)1/7, where R is the pipe radius and r is the position from the centre. Numerical integration of this expression over the cross section of the pipe using the quadrature package in SciPy yielded the determined total flow rate. Note that this is an conservative estimate assuming steady state turbulent conditions which might not yet have established shortly after turning on the overhead stirrer. References: Flud mechanics and transfer processes, J.M. Kay, R.M. Nedderman, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1985.

Application 1012

Time lapse video illustrating how an externally connected rotating bed reactor (RBR) can pump and process large liquid volumes by the convective flow created by the spinning RBR. The concept enables handling of volumes at least 10-100 times larger than the external vessel, thus facilitating installation of RBR technology into existing plant equipment.

Products: SpinChem® RBR S2
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    Conditions: A water filled (2 L) connected system consisting of a tank (1 L) to which an external flower baffled vessel (200 mL) was connected via pipes (24.6 mm ID). A SpinChem® rotating bed reactor (RBR) S221 filled with activated carbon (28 mL, 20-50 mesh) was placed in the external vessel and rotated at 1000 rpm adsorbing dissolved methylene blue (40 mg) within 14 minutes.

Application 1010

Photos showing how grinding caused by stirring of molecular sieves can be completely avoided by using a rotating bed reactor (RBR). Molecular sieves contained in a RBR for a 200 mL vessel can theoretically hold 0.23 moles of water. This allows synthesis of product in the range of 100 gram by ester condensation or drying of 25 litres of analytical grade organic solvent.

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    Conditions: Molecular sieve (3 Å, rods 3-5 mm, 15 g), placed either into a SpinChem® S221 rotating bed reactor (RBR) or free in solution agitated by a 3-blade stainless steel propeller (5 cm), both operated at 500 rpm within a SpinChem® V211 flower-baffled reaction vessel containing isopropanol (130 mL). Photos were taken after 24 hours of operation with the RBR and stirrer in place, respectively. The theoretical calculation assumed an RBR with space for 20 g molecular sieve with a 20% (w/w) water adsorption capacity, a synthesis yield of 99%, a product weight of 450 g/mol, and an organic solvent with a density of 0.8 kg/L and an initial moisture content of 200 ppm; data partly taken from literature; J. Org. Chem. 2010 (75) 8351-8354.

Application 1009

Video illustrating how a mixture of red and blue dyes with different chemical properties can be selectively extracted onto different adsorbents within the same run using a rotating bed reactor (RBR). The dyes were separated based on ionic and hydrophobic interactions, respectively.

Products: SpinChem® RBR S2
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    Conditions: Allura red (40 µM) and methylene blue (13 µM) in deionized water (about 160 mL) were adsorbed onto Amberlite IRA900 Cl (13 mL, 650-820 µm) and Amberlite XAD1600N (13 mL, 400±50 µm), respectively. Each adsorbent was filled into two of the four compartments in a SpinChem® S221 rotating bed reactor (RBR) operated at 800 rpm within a SpinChem® V221 flower-baffled reaction vessel. The total extraction time for one run was nine minutes and the video contains photos of the adsorbents before and after two repeated extractions.

Application 1008

Accelerated video showing the enhanced adsorption rates of methylene blue onto activated carbon using a rotating bed reactor (RBR) compared to a stirred tank reactor (STR). The RBR decolourized the solution almost twice as fast, did not create any visible fines and required no filtration.

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    Conditions: Adsorption of methylene blue (100 mg) onto activated carbon (40 mL, 12-40 mesh) placed either in a SpinChem® S311 rotating bed reactor (RBR) or stirred free in solution agitated by a 5 cm impeller, both operated at 800 rpm within a SpinChem® V311 flower-baffled reaction vessel containing 1000 mL water at room temperature. The video is shown at 12x the normal speed. The solution was decolourized after 5 minutes with the RBR, versus close to 10 minutes with the stirred tank reactor (STR). Samples from the RBR set-up required no filtration, but from the STR all samples required filtration through a 45 µm syringe filter for analysis.

Application 1007

Video showing the principle of an automated rotating bed reactor system capable of filling a solution, neutralizing it by ion exchange and draining it. By microcomputer control, unattended semi-continuous batch processing was accomplished for many cycles until the ion exchanger was completely saturated.

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    Conditions: Neutralization of about 500 mL water with 0.63 mM NaOH and 110 mg/L phenolphthalein within a SpinChem® S311 flower-baffled reaction vessel, using a SpinChem® RBR S311 containing 50 mL Amberlite IRN99 at 500 rpm. The automated sequence included filling to level sensor, starting the overhead stirrer motor, stopping stirrer motor when absorbance probe recorded a clear solution, opening the bottom valve until vessel was empty and finally closing the bottom valve to get ready for a new cycle. The entire sequence was controlled by a microcomputer allowing a preset number of cycles to be executed without manual interaction.

Application 1006

Video revealing the efficient mass transfer and resulting shorter reaction time with a rotating bed reactor (RBR) during ion-exchange neutralization of a base. The reaction with the RBR finished 30% faster and left a completely clear solution without any particles.

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    Conditions: Neutralization of sodium hydroxide (1 M, 200 µL) by cation exchanger Amberlite IRN99 (20 mL) placed either in a SpinChem® S311 rotating bed reactor (RBR) or distributed in solution agitated by a 5 cm impeller, both operated at 800 rpm within a SpinChem® V311 flower-baffled reaction vessel containing 800 mL water with phenolphthalein (20 mg/L). The reaction with RBR finished after 23 s versus 33s for the stirred tank reactor with impeller.

Application 1004

Log-log plot of how viscosity affects the reaction time for a mass transfer limited reaction at a fixed rotational speed of a rotating bed reactor (RBR). The RBR behaved very predictably and delivered reaction times that increased linearly with reaction media viscosity up to at least 500 mPa·s.

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    Conditions: Time for neutralization of sodium hydroxide (2 M, 50 µL) by acidic cation exchanger (Amberlite IRN 99, 20 mL) packed into a SpinChem® RBR S311 rotated at 500 rpm within a SpinChem® V311 flower baffled reaction vessel containing 500 mL solution consisting of 0-90% glycerol in water to adjust viscosity. The reaction was followed at two different temperatures (10 °C and 30 °C). Neutralization time was determined manually with 3-9 repeated measurements per viscosity using phenolphthalein (10 mg) as indicator. Viscosity was taken as standard tabulated values from J.B. Segur et al. in Ind. Eng. Chem 43 (1951) 2117. Median relative standard deviations of reaction time was 5.3% but had a tendency to increase at the highest viscosities.

Application 1003

Illustrative video showing how a phenolic colourant is deprotonated and extracted from an organic to an aqueous solvent. Using SpinChem® RBR in a flower-baffled reaction vessel created fine emulsion droplets resulting in effective phase-transfer between the two liquids and the solid phase.

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    Conditions: Red 2,6-dichloroindophenol (about 3 mg) in dichloromethane (70 mL) with water (70 mL) converted to its blue phenolate anion using Purolite A500P (25 mL) in OH form (created by treating Cl form with NaOH) packed into a SpinChem® RBR S221 rotating at 500 rpm in a SpinChem® V211 flower-baffled reaction vessel.

Application 1001

Investigation of how rotational speed influences the efficiency of rotating bed reactors (RBR) for a diversity of processes such as adsorption, neutralization and ammonolysis. It was demonstrated how reaction rates could reach a plateau with the SpinChem® RBR when mass transfer efficiency exceeded reaction speed.

Application brochure

Brochure with SpinChem® rotating bed reactors (RBR) – applications, products and technology. Learn from examples how to increase speed and convenience for heterogeneous reactions in laboratory development and production scale. Read about the capabilities and handling benefits with pre-packed cartridges.

Application brochure

Learn how SpinChem rotating bed reactors (RBR) can eliminate poor mass transfer in heterogeneous reactions during chemical synthesis and biotransformations. Preserve activity and facilitate recycling of solid phases with the RBR. This brochure shows technology and applications.

Application L1702

A rotating bed reactor containing ion exchange beads was modeled in flower-baffled reaction vessels. It was shown that the baffles are vital for reducing surface vortexes and circular flow within the vessel. The authors concluded that the flow rates through the packed bed and reaction rates tend to increase with deeper baffles.

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    Hilde Larsson, Patrick Alexander Schjøtt Andersen, Emil Byström, Krist V. Gernaey, Ulrich Krühne
    Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research, 56 (2017) 3853-3865