Reaction screening

Using enzymes to drive a reaction is often preferred to chemical catalysts. A clear advantage of using enzymes is the high substrate specificity, which generally gives rise to high yields and high reaction rates, as well as products free from unwanted biproducts. Due to both technical and economic benefits, the enzymes used to catalyse reactions are often immobilized on the surface of different insoluble materials. The immobilization will lead to easier recycling, manipulation and separation of the enzyme, as well as an increase in its thermal and operational stability.

The most common applications for immobilized enzymes include esterifications, transesterifications, amidations and the modification of fats and oils. To identify the enzyme best suited for the conversion of a certain substrate, the candidate enzymes are put through a screening process. As the reaction conditions must ensure the stability of the enzyme and substrate, parameters such as solvent, temperature and pH should also be optimized to guarantee a high and pure product yield. In processes including enzyme development, there is also a need for screening of different methods of immobilization, as well as potential carrier materials, to ensure preserved enzyme activity.

As evaluation is generally needed for several different factors when developing an enzyme-catalysed process, easy screening of multiple reaction parameters will allow for easier and faster design of experiments. By being able to examine several parameters simultaneously in a multidimensional parameter space, the process can quickly be optimized. Through this, high parameter robustness can be achieved, thus also providing the process with high reproducibility, validity and reliability.

Magnetic rotating bed reactors

The SpinChem® magnetic rotating bed reactor (MagRBR), carries 0.5 mL solid phase resin, and is designed for screening of biocatalysts and biocatalytic reactions in liquid phase volumes of 5-100 mL. The SpinChem® MagRBR retains the solid phase particles, and conducts the mass transfer by impelling the movement of the liquid phase.

No preparations are required prior to implementing the MagRBR in screening applications, and the downstream processing is greatly minimized or completely cut out due to the lack of filtration steps. The SpinChem® MagRBR is delivered pre-packed with a variety of resins for catalysis and adsorption screening. As the SpinChem® MagRBR is spun by means of magnetic coupling, solution is continuously passed through the packed bed within, allowing the reactants in the different phases to interact. By running the reactions in minimized liquid volumes, the amount of enzyme and substrate needed is reduced, thus significantly increasing the rate of enzyme development. For even further streamlined screening, the SpinChem® magnetic stirrer with multiple positions can be used to run several reactions in parallel.

Application L1701
A novel hierarchically structured siliceous packing to boost the performance of rotating bed enzymatic reactors

Katarzyna Szymańska, Klaudia Odrozek, Aurelia Zniszczoł, Wojciech Pudło, and Andrzej B. Jarzębski Chem. Eng. J., 2017, 315, pp. 18-24.

Application 1007
Automatic processes for efficient production

Automation of large-scale processes is often a requirement for economically viable chemical processes. The benefits of scale are best harvested at high throughputs and 24/7 operation. This leads to the demand for process automation, and the elimination of hands-on work.

Application 1023
Biocatalysis in rotating bed reactors - from screening to production

Enzyme screening is an important step in the development of a biocatalytic application. The behaviour of the biocatalyst is often hard to predict, meaning that different combinations of materials and reaction conditions need to be tested.

Application 9005
Palladium catalyzed Suzuki couplings in a Mettler-Toledo EasyMax™ 102

Heterogeneous catalysis can be an effective tool for chemical synthesis, particularly in the discovery and development of pharmaceutical ingredients. The handling of these solid catalysts is sometimes challenging as it leads to more unit operations in the factory scale, as well as introduces additional work-up in the laboratory.

Application 1028
Enzyme immobilization screening using rotating bed reactors

Finding the optimal chemistry and solid-phase material for immobilization of enzymes relies heavily on trial and error. The right resin will ensure satisfactory immobilization yield, as well as high activity and stability of the enzyme.

Application L2115
Production of recombinant choline oxidase and its application in betaine production

S. Lokesha, Y. S. Ravi Kumar, P. S. Sujan Ganapathy, Prashant Gaur, and H. M. Arjun 3 Biotech, 2021, 11, 410.

Application 9001
Recycling Novozym® 435 with a rotating bed reactor in the EasyMax™ 102

Investigating reactions can easily grow from an idea into very time-consuming projects, but the upside of properly understanding the reaction is great. The choice of equipment has a very large impact on the efforts required. The rotating bed reactor is a tool that unlocks the full potential of your Mettler-Toledo EasyMax™ 102 Advanced synthesis workstation for this development.

Application 1032
Rotating bed reactor for immobilized enzymatic reactions

This case study presents a lipase-mediated stereoselective acetylation of a racemic amine in a rotating bed reactor.

Exploring the effectiveness of different types of activated carbon

Contaminations in liquids can often be removed using an adsorbent, such as granular activated carbon (GAC). The best choice of adsorbent is unique for each contaminant, and the effectiveness depends on many parameters. Failing to investigate these can lead to unnecessarily high material costs and long processing times.

Application 9002
Screening of Immobilized Enzymes in an EasyMax™ 102

Screening immobilized enzymes to find the best match with the substrate and reaction conditions can be a time-consuming process. The introduction of the solids in a stirred tank reactor leads to damage to the immobilized biocatalysts and makes filtration necessary.

Application 1027
Screening of immobilized lipases using rotating bed reactors

The SpinChem rotating bed reactor (RBR) has been proven to be a time and labor-efficient tool in the screening of biocatalysts. Here, we present the quick simultaneous screening of six different immobilized lipases for the esterification of lauric acid to propyl laurate using our pre-packed MagRBR lipase screening kit.

Application 1044
Simple scale-up using flexible reactors

Research and development quickly takes new directions, and the requirements on a laboratory may vary with every new project. Limiting yourself to equipment with a narrow scope of conditions and applications may become expensive, since new equipment must be acquired for anything out of scope. With budgets quickly consumed by other projects, the need for new equipment may mean significant delays and a reduced capability to take on emerging opportunities.

Application 1022
Transfer hydrogenation with catalyst recycling in a rotating bed reactor

Hydrogenation reactions using hydrogen gas are usually efficient and clean. Drawbacks are the safety issues of handling hydrogen gas, need for reactors made for pressurized reactions, and the necessity of vigorous stirring to make these solid-liquid-gaseous reactions work well.

Application L2004
Advanced oxidation process for degradation of carbamazepine from aqueous solution: influence of metal modified microporous, mesoporous catalysts on the ozonation process

Soudabeh Saeid, Matilda Kråkström, Pasi Tolvanen, Narendra Kumar, Kari Eränen, Jyri-Pekka Mikkola, Leif Kronberg, Patrik Eklund, Markus Peurla, Atte Aho, Andrey Shchukarev and Tapio Salmi Catalysts, 2020, 10(1), 90.

Application L2006
Epoxidation of tall oil catalyzed by an ion exchange resin under conventional heating and microwave irradiation

Adriana Freites Aguilera, Jani Rahkila, Jarl Hemming, Maristiina Nurmi, Gaetan Torres, Théophile Razat, Pasi Tolvanen, Kari Eränen, Sébastien Leveneur, and Tapio Salmi Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., 2020, 59(22), pp. 10397-10406.

Application L2306
Selective peroxygenase-catalysed oxidation of toluene derivatives to benzaldehydes

Yutong Wang, Niklas Teetz, Dirk Holtmann, Miguel Alcalde, Jacob M. A. van Hengst, Xiaoxiao Liu, Mengfan Wang, Wei Qi, Wuyuan Zhang, and Frank Hollmann ChemCatChem, 2023, 15(13), e202300645.

Application L2309
Screening, synthesis optimization, and scaling-up of phytopathogen antifungals derived from natural hydroxycinnamic acids

Doddy Denise Ojeda-Hernández, Ana Daniela Vega-Rodríguez, Ali Asaff-Torres, and Juan Carlos Mateos-Díaz 3 Biotech, 2023, 13, 13.

Application L2310
Large scale production of vanillin using an eugenol oxidase from Nocardioides sp. YR527

Daniel Eggerichs, Kathrin Zilske, and Dirk Tischler Mol. Catal., 2023, 546, 113277.

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