Application 1021
Demonstration of loading, reaction and unloading in a production scale rotating bed reactor

Video showing how a SpinChem® rotating bed reactor (RBR) for use in 20-300 L vessels was charged with solid particles, used for pH neutralization, drained from reaction liquid and finally emptied from solid phase without opening the RBR. This procedure illustrates one approach to using RBR in production scale equipment without opening the reaction vessel.  Keywords: Easy handling, Ion exchange, Seamless scaleup, Technology

Application 1013
Flow rate determination in a connected system with rotating bed reactors

Short video of a coloured dye front moving in a transparent liquid through a pipe connecting an external rotating bed reactor to a larger vessel. The total convective flow rate was calculated to 440 L/h based on linear progression of the dye and assuming steady state turbulent conditions at Reynolds number 7900.  Keywords: Continuous flow, Seamless scaleup, Technology

Application 1029
Effects of channelling on flow rates through rotating bed reactors and fixed bed reactors

The performance and robustness of the SpinChem® rotating bed reactor (RBR) technology was examined and compared to a fixed bed reactor (FBR) using ANSYS Fluent. By means of flow simulations through loosely packed beds, the RBR was found to be extremely robust with respect to the level of packing of the solid phase within, while the FBR was negatively affected by channelling.  Keywords: Easy handling, Simulation, Technology

Application 1016
In situ filling and emptying of rotating bed reactors

Video showing how a SpinChem® rotating bed reactor (RBR) was charged with solid particles, followed by draining and replacing the reaction liquid without escape of solids. Lastly, the solid phase was removed without opening the RBR. This procedure illustrates a concept for automatic handling of solid phases in production scale equipment without opening the reaction vessel.  Keywords: Easy handling, Seamless scaleup, Technology

Mass transfer revolutionized

Learn how SpinChem rotating bed reactors (RBR) can eliminate poor mass transfer in heterogeneous reactions during chemical synthesis and biotransformations. Preserve activity and facilitate recycling of solid phases with the RBR. This brochure shows technology and applications.  Keywords: Biotransformation, Brochure, Fast reaction, Immobilized enzymes, Molecular sieve, Preserved activity, Simple cleanup, Synthesis, Technology

Application 1032
Rotating bed reactor for immobilized enzymatic reactions

Poster on a case study of applying the rotating bed reactor for the lipase-mediated stereoselective acetylation of a racemate amine as a model reaction for the manufacturing of pharmaceutical building blocks. The results showed that enzyme recycling and synthesis scale up was easy to achieve with preserved yield, enantioselectivity and catalytic activity.   Keywords: Biotransformation, Easy handling, Immobilized enzymes, Quick recycling, Seamless scaleup

Application 1025
Rotating bed reactor setup for in situ formation, loading and handling of alginate beads and whole cell encapsulation

Video showing the formation of alginate beads under conditions mimicking whole cell encapsulation. The use of a SpinChem® rotating bed reactor (RBR) allowed easy collection, maturing and washing of the alginate beads. With the RBR setup, it was possible to immediately continue with filling of the reaction substrate into the same vessel, thus reducing the number of handling steps and facilitating bead recycling. The beads showed no signs of physical wear after use in the RBR.   Keywords: Alginate, Biotransformation, Easy handling, One-pot multistep, Technology

Application 1010
Rotating bed reactors completely avoid grinding of molecular sieves

Photos showing how grinding caused by stirring of molecular sieves can be completely avoided by using a rotating bed reactor (RBR). Molecular sieves contained in a RBR for a 200 mL vessel can theoretically hold 0.23 moles of water. This allows synthesis of product in the range of 100 gram by ester condensation or drying of 25 litres of analytical grade organic solvent. Keywords: Easy handling, Molecular sieve, Purification, Simple cleanup, Synthesis, Technology, Water

Application 1020
Simulation of flow patterns around a rotating bed reactor in a flower baffled reaction vessel

Computational fluid dynamics simulations is an important tool in the optimization of geometries during development of SpinChem® rotating bed reactor (RBR) products. The image shows velocity vectors in a cross section of the flow around a SpinChem® RBR, in a flower baffled reaction vessel, simulated using ANSYS Fluent software under typical laboratory conditions.  Keywords: Behind the scenes, Simulation, Technology

Application 1009
Simultaneous extraction of two dyes selectively onto different resins

Video illustrating how a mixture of red and blue dyes with different chemical properties can be selectively extracted onto different adsorbents within the same run using a rotating bed reactor (RBR). The dyes were separated based on ionic and hydrophobic interactions, respectively.  Keywords: Cleantech, Decolouration, Extraction, Ion exchange, One-pot multistep, Organic molecules, Polymeric resin, Technology

Application 9003
Simultaneous Selective Decolouration – Illustrating a Concept for Cascade Reactions

Two dyes were selectively extracted onto different adsorbents within the same run using a SpinChem® rotating bed reactor (RBR) and an EasyMax™ 102 Advanced synthesis workstation. This experiment illustrates performing cascade reaction for one-pot multi-step synthesis.  Keywords: Cleantech, Decolouration, Extraction, Ion exchange, One-pot multistep, Organic molecules, Polymeric resin, Technology

MagRBR and stirrer

Instruction video for the MagRBR and stirrer 

Assembly guide for Rotating Bed Reactor S2

Assembly guide for Rotating Bed Reactor S2

SpinChem RBR S3 and S3+ Assembly Guide

Assembly guide for SpinChem RBR S3 and S3+

SpinChem RBR S4, S5 and S14 Assembly Guide

SpinChem RBR S4, S5 and S14 Assembly Guide

SpinChem Assembly Guide: V2 Reaction Vessel

Assembly Guide: V2 Reaction Vessel

SpinChem Assembly Guide: Laboratory Stand

SpinChem Assembly Guide: Laboratory Stand

SpinChem RBR Tips ‘n’ Tricks

SpinChem RBR Tips ‘n’ Tricks

Application 1040
The importance of baffles in a reactor vessels

baffle (noun) : a device (such as a plate, wall, or screen) to deflect, check, or regulate flow or passage (as of a fluid, light, or sound) Can you use a rotating bed reactor (RBR) in any type of vessel? Absolutely. Would the performance be higher with baffles in the vessel? Definitively. A vortex, which forms due to the rotation of an agitator, is detrimental to the mixing in a reactor vessel. If the agitator is a rotating bed reactor, it also disrupts the flow through the RBR. Baffles are features in the reactor vessel that break the circulating flow pattern, preventing vortex formation and improving overall mixing. The importance of baffles has long been established for stirred tank reactors with agitation by impellers, and baffling is equally important for vessels with an RBR installed. You don't need to take our word for it; customers that have investigated the effect of baffling on their mass-transfer limited reactions have found the same result. The most recent data comes from research at the Fraunhofer Institute for Interfacial Engineering and Biotechnology IGB. They started out with the RBR S3 in a smooth glass vessel. After observing a deep vortex, drawn down into the RBR, and the resulting disappointing performance, one simple flat-blade baffle was installed. The performance for the enzymatic reaction was quantified with and without the flat-blade baffle, and the result is presented in the figure below. As seen in the data, installing one simple baffle resulted in a doubled yield at each time point on average. The double-walled glass vessels (V2 and V3) that SpinChem offer are custom-made to fit the RBR S2 and S3 respectively. The vessels have structured inner glass walls that serve as "flower-shaped" baffles, which do not take up the same space as traditional flat-blade baffles. This minimizes the required volume of reaction medium, and maximizes mixing performance.   Some non-baffled vessels perform as if they had flow breakers installed, just through the shape of their vessel walls. For instance, any non-round geometry such as rectangular IBC-tanks may provide satisfactory mixing and prevention of a deep vortex forming. On benchtop scale, the round beaker is appealing with its simplicity, but a baffled reaction vessel will yield much better performance. If you have more questions about this contact us.

Application 1042
How large liquid volumes can a rotating bed reactor process?

Large volumes of liquid waste will often accumulate at industrial sites. It may be very time-consuming and resource-intensive to adequately treat these waste streams for release, so the problem often compounds over time. The rotating bed reactor (RBR) is a tool for treating very large volumes of liquids; valuable batches of product or problematic liquid waste. In the latter case, the contamination is concentrated to a smaller volume of solid waste, often reducing the mass and volume of the waste many thousands of times. SpinChem will design a treatment system for your individual case and to your requirements. We have the capabilities to build and test complete systems, as well as predict performance using computational models and in-house pilot tests. Legacy waste in the nuclear energy sector, unresolved for many decades, have been cleared for release in weeks after the implementation of a rotating bed reactor. Contact us today for a consultation on your liquid application. To prove the application of an RBR in very large liquid volumes the benchtop model RBR S2 (which normally operates on 120 mL of liquid) was installed in an IBC containing 780 L of water and 400 mg of methylene blue. The RBR was filled with activated carbon and rotated at 800 RPM. The amount of dye in the solution was measured by spectrophotometry. Roughly 90% of the dye was removed in the first 70 hours. The liquid-to-solid ratio was more than 27800(!), and still the RBR homogeneously treated the entire volume. The rotating bed reactor technology was deployed in the nuclear energy sector on a tank containing 90 m3 of water, wherein a contaminant was removed by adsorption. The RBR contained only 14 L of adsorbent at a time, and the 90,000 L of liquid waste was reduced to 57 L of solid waste.

Application 1044
Simple scale-up using flexible reactors

Research and development quickly takes new directions, and the requirements on a laboratory may vary with every new project. Limiting yourself to equipment with a narrow scope of conditions and applications may become expensive, since new equipment must be acquired for anything out of scope. With budgets quickly consumed by other projects, the need for new equipment may mean significant delays and a reduced capability to take on emerging opportunities. Many heterogeneous processes (e.g. adsorption or catalysis) are made faster by increasing the solid-to-liquid ratio. Studying scale-up effects can also help to predict full-scale performance. For these reasons it’s wise to invest in equipment that can handle different operating conditions such as liquid volume, solids loading, pH and temperature. The RBR S3 Plus is the most modular rotating bed reactor for laboratory use. Made from two stacked rotating bed reactors, the S3 Plus quickly converts to a single RBR S3 for use with smaller liquid volumes. When used in the dedicated glass reactor system, this yields an operating range of 250 - 1500 mL of liquid and 0 - 140 mL of solids.   This application note investigates the effect of solids loading on the reaction rate of two applications: the adsorption of a dye and a biocatalytic esterification reaction. These two reactions are mass-transport limited and relatively fast. In the first case, an RBR S3 and an RBR S3 Plus were filled with 50 mL and 100 mL respectively of the ion-exchange resin Purolite® NRW1160. Methylene blue was dissolved in water, and the solution was decolorized by spinning an RBR at 600 RPM (reaction conditions in the details below). The results were clear; each case followed 1st order kinetics with a rate constant for the RBR S3 Plus that was twice that of the RBR S3. Note that the solid-to-liquid ratio for the RBR S3 Plus was also twice that of the RBR S3. For the enzymatic esterification, the same rotating bed reactors (RBR S3 and RBR S3 Plus) were filled with 40 mL and 80 mL respectively of the biocatalyst Purolite® immo PS. The rotating bed reactors were used in separate reactions in mixtures of lauric acid, 1-propanol and water. Also in this case the reaction rate was proportional to the solid-to-liquid ratio, yielding twice the productivity with the RBR S3 Plus compared to the RBR S3. The conclusion is that with a rotating bed reactor you are making the most out of the solid-phase. Doubling the amount of catalyst or adsorbent will generally double the reaction rate constant, which makes scaling up straightforward. Contact us today to discuss how we can scale your process.

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