Application 1015
A remote controlled raft for treatment of surface water using rotating bed reactor technology

Time lapse video demonstrating a prototype vehicle capable of processing two cubic metres of coloured water within five minutes. The raft was carrying two rotating bed reactors that neutralized the basic surface water in a square pond by ion exchange.  Keywords: Cleantech, Ion exchange, Seamless scaleup, Technology

Application 1008
Activated carbon decolourization comparing rotating bed reactor and stirred tank reactor

Accelerated video showing the enhanced adsorption rates of methylene blue onto activated carbon using a rotating bed reactor (RBR) compared to a stirred tank reactor (STR). The RBR decolourized the solution almost twice as fast, did not create any visible fines and required no filtration.  Keywords: Activated carbon, Decolouration, Fast reaction, Organic molecules, Simple cleanup, Technology 

Application 1007
Automated semi-continuous batch processing system with rotating bed reactor

Video showing the principle of an automated rotating bed reactor system capable of filling a solution, neutralizing it by ion exchange and draining it. By microcomputer control, unattended semi-continuous batch processing was accomplished for many cycles until the ion exchanger was completely saturated.  Keywords: Automation, Ion exchange, Seamless scaleup, Technology

Application 1035
Column vs RBR

A performance comparison between a column (fixed bed reactor) and rotating bed reactor (RBR) for de-ionizing 1000 L of tap water. Using best-in-class standard protocols for both technologies, we tested which technology could de-ionize to a desired endpoint conductivity value the quickest. The result show that the RBR is significantly faster, reaching 3.7 times faster a conductivity level of 0.15 µS/cm compared to the column.  Keywords: Cleantech, Deionization, Fast reaction, Technology  

Application 1024
Comparing rotating bed reactor and fixed bed reactor for adsorption purification

Comparison of rotating bed reactor (RBR) technology and fixed bed reactor (FBR) column during activated carbon decolourization. The more efficient use of the adsorbent with a SpinChem® RBR enabled completion of the process within 40% of the time at the same material amount or allowed reduction to 50% material while still being able to finish the process within the same time as the FBR.  Keywords: Activated carbon, Decolouration, Fast reaction, Organic molecules, Purification, Technology  

Application 1006
Comparison of reaction speed with rotating bed reactor and stirred tank reactor

Video revealing the efficient mass transfer and resulting shorter reaction time with a rotating bed reactor (RBR) during ion-exchange neutralization of a base. The reaction with the RBR finished 30% faster and left a completely clear solution without any particles. Keywords: Fast reaction, Ion exchange, Technology

Application 1004
Consequences of viscous solutions on the reaction rate with rotating bed reactors

Log-log plot of how viscosity affects the reaction time for a mass transfer limited reaction at a fixed rotational speed of a rotating bed reactor (RBR). The RBR behaved very predictably and delivered reaction times that increased linearly with reaction media viscosity up to at least 500 mPa·s.  Keywords: Ion exchange, Organic molecules, Technology, Viscous solutions  

Application 1030
Decolourization of highly viscous solutions using a rotating bed reactor and a stirred tank reactor

The performance of a SpinChem® rotating bed reactor (RBR) in the treatment of highly viscous solutions was compared to that of a conventional stirred tank reactor (STR). Both reactor set-ups were used for the extraction of Allura red dye from a glycerol-dye mixture using an ion exchange resin. The RBR removed 10 times the amount of dye in just over 40 % of the time, compared to the STR. This comparison underlines the efficient mixing and clever design of the SpinChem® RBR, as well as the broad spectrum of applications for which this technology is highly relevant.  Keywords: Decolouration, Fast reaction, Ion exchange, Technology, Viscous solutions    

Application 1031
Decolourization in an IBC tank using the ProRBR IBC add-on

Adsorption of methylene blue (3 g, 5 mg/L) onto Purolite® NRW1160 (4.2 L) placed in a SpinChem® S5 RBR operated at 147 rpm. The SpinChem® S5 RBR was placed within a 600 L IBC tank, using the ProRBR IBC add-on, where the tank was filled with water. The data was acquired using a UV-VIS spectrophotometer.  

Application 1034
Decolourization using 79 L of activated carbon in a 7000 L vessel

A large scale decolourization experiment using the SpinChem® rotating bed reactor (RBR) S100, packed with 79 L of activated carbon. The vessel contained 7000 L of water with added methylene blue dye. In under 40 minutes, 95% of the initial concentration of methylene blue was removed from the water, which shows that the RBR S100 can achieve fast reaction times in large scale processes.  Keywords: Activated carbon, Cleantech, Decolouration, Fast reaction

Application 1026
Decolourization with activated carbon in a production scale rotating bed reactor

Accelerated video showing the removal of methylene blue from 50 L volume of liquid, by adsorption onto activated carbon in a production scale rotating bed reactor (RBR). The decolouration process removed 99.96% of the dye within 10 minutes with a logarithmic decline of concentration as documented by analysis of withdrawn samples.  Keywords: Activated carbon, Decolouration, Organic molecules, Purification, Seamless scaleup, Technology

Application 1033
Deionizing 7000 L of tap water using the SpinChem® RBR S100

The SpinChem® rotating bed reactor (RBR) S100, with a solid phase capacity of 100 L, was used to deionize 7000 L of tap water. The RBR S100 was operating at 160 rpm and filled with 36.5 L of mixed bed ion exchange resin. The results show that the RBR S100 can efficiently process large liquid volumes. As shown by the successful deionization, the performance of the RBR remains high even when it is partially filled, which proves the extreme robustness of the RBR technology.  Keywords: Ion exchange, Seamless scaleup, Technology  

Application 1003
Effective phase-transfer between immiscible liquids and an ion exchange resin

Illustrative video showing how a phenolic colourant is deprotonated and extracted from an organic to an aqueous solvent. Using SpinChem® RBR in a flower-baffled reaction vessel created fine emulsion droplets resulting in effective phase-transfer between the two liquids and the solid phase. Keywords: Immiscible liquids, Ion exchange, Organic molecules, Technology

Application 1013
Flow rate determination in a connected system with rotating bed reactors

Short video of a coloured dye front moving in a transparent liquid through a pipe connecting an external rotating bed reactor to a larger vessel. The total convective flow rate was calculated to 440 L/h based on linear progression of the dye and assuming steady state turbulent conditions at Reynolds number 7900.  Keywords: Continuous flow, Seamless scaleup, Technology

Application 1001
Optimizing the rotational speed of rotating bed reactors in baffled reaction vessels

Investigation of how rotational speed influences the efficiency of rotating bed reactors (RBR) for a diversity of processes such as adsorption, neutralization and ammonolysis. It was demonstrated how reaction rates could reach a plateau with the SpinChem® RBR when mass transfer efficiency exceeded reaction speed.   Keywords: Activated carbon, Fast reaction, Immobilized enzymes, Ion exchange, Technology

Application 1010
Rotating bed reactors completely avoid grinding of molecular sieves

Photos showing how grinding caused by stirring of molecular sieves can be completely avoided by using a rotating bed reactor (RBR). Molecular sieves contained in a RBR for a 200 mL vessel can theoretically hold 0.23 moles of water. This allows synthesis of product in the range of 100 gram by ester condensation or drying of 25 litres of analytical grade organic solvent. Keywords: Easy handling, Molecular sieve, Purification, Simple cleanup, Synthesis, Technology, Water

Application 1009
Simultaneous extraction of two dyes selectively onto different resins

Video illustrating how a mixture of red and blue dyes with different chemical properties can be selectively extracted onto different adsorbents within the same run using a rotating bed reactor (RBR). The dyes were separated based on ionic and hydrophobic interactions, respectively.  Keywords: Cleantech, Decolouration, Extraction, Ion exchange, One-pot multistep, Organic molecules, Polymeric resin, Technology

Application 9003
Simultaneous Selective Decolouration – Illustrating a Concept for Cascade Reactions

Two dyes were selectively extracted onto different adsorbents within the same run using a SpinChem® rotating bed reactor (RBR) and an EasyMax™ 102 Advanced synthesis workstation. This experiment illustrates performing cascade reaction for one-pot multi-step synthesis.  Keywords: Cleantech, Decolouration, Extraction, Ion exchange, One-pot multistep, Organic molecules, Polymeric resin, Technology

Application 9004
Treatment of Viscous Solutions – Simple Extraction and In-line Monitoring

Blue dye was removed from a highly viscous liquid using a SpinChem® RBR S2 in an EasyMax™ 102 Advanced Synthesis Workstation. Monitoring of the reaction was easily recorded as no freely suspended ion exchange resin beads or resin debris interfered with the readings. This demonstrates that the RBR technology is extremely well suited for in-line monitoring. The viscosity of the solution was determined to ca 230 cP at 25°C, showing that it is possible to absorb dye even from a highly viscous solution.  Keywords: Decolouration, Extraction, Ion exchange, Mettler-Toledo, Viscous solutions

Application 1037
In tank deployment of large scale rotating bed reactor

To further demonstrate the use of RBR:s at process scale, a decolorization using ion exchange resin was performed at 7500 L scale. An RBR S14 was filled with strongly acidic cationic resin NRW1160 from Purolite and used to remove blue dye from an aqueous solution in a stainless steel tank of 7500 L volume. The solid-to-liquid ratio is a fraction of percent, showing the efficiency of the RBR technique for convectional mass-transfer and global mixing. The RBR was spun at 340 rpm while the transmittance at 663 nm was monitored for ca 4 h at which point the transmittance had recovered the baseline value for colorless de-ionized water.   Keywords: Ion exchange, Cleantech, Nuclear, Scale-up  

Treatment of 7.5 m3 with a 50L Plug-in system

A small rotating bed reactor (RBR) system deployed in an external loop to the customer’s regular reaction vessel. Even though RBR technique has been identified as offering advantages for a particular process, deploying it in existing an existing reaction vessel may prove difficult for practical reasons. This is were “plug-in” mode deployment of the RBR can offer a solution. The RBR and associated vessel is attached in an external loop by inlet and outlet connections to the regular vessel. The “plug-in” RBR system is typically small compared to the regular vessel. Alternatively, the RBR system can be deployed in a vessel → RBR → 2nd vessel mode. A proof-of-concept demonstration of an RBR in “plug-in” mode by a decolorization. The volume of the “plug-in” vessel is ca 0.7% of the regular vessel it is attached to.

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