Application 1015
A remote controlled raft for treatment of surface water using rotating bed reactor technology

Time lapse video demonstrating a prototype vehicle capable of processing two cubic metres of coloured water within five minutes. The raft was carrying two rotating bed reactors that neutralized the basic surface water in a square pond by ion exchange.

Application 1008
Activated carbon decolorization, fast and without filtration

Activated carbon is a common choice for removing impurities or capturing compounds from a product batch. However, the carbon may itself foul the product and be difficult to separate. The rotating bed reactor offers a clean way to deploy activated carbon that removes the need for time-consuming filtration and extends the lifetime of the solid phase.  

Application L1801
Advanced oxidation process for the removal of ibuprofen from aqueous solution: A non-catalytic and catalytic ozonation study in a semi-batch reactor

Soudabeh Saeid, Pasi Tolvanen, Narendra Kumar, Kari Eränen, Janne Peltonen, Markus Peurla, Jyri-Pekka Mikkola, Andreas Franz, and Tapio Salmi Appl. Catal. B, 2018, 230, pp. 77-90.

Application 1012
Flexible deployment with the plug-in rotating bed reactor

The rotating bed reactor (RBR) is a combined tool for chemical transformations and liquid transfer operations, reducing or eliminating the need for external pumps. Filled with a catalyst or adsorbent, and rotated by a motor, the RBR brings the liquid to be processed in contact with the solid-phase at high flow rates. Due to the high flow rate generated, the RBR can not only treat the liquid in the reaction vessel, but also transfer it into the vessel for processing.

Application 1007
Automatic processes for efficient production

Automation of large-scale processes is often a requirement for economically viable chemical processes. The benefits of scale are best harvested at high throughputs and 24/7 operation. This leads to the demand for process automation, and the elimination of hands-on work.

Application L1702
CFD modeling of flow and ion exchange kinetics in a rotating bed reactor system

Hilde Larsson, Patrick Alexander Schjøtt Andersen, Emil Byström, Krist V. Gernaey, and Ulrich Krühne Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., 2017, 56, 14, pp. 3853-3865.

Application 1035
Dramatically improved deionization with a rotating bed reactor

Removing ions from liquids is common in industry and society. Ions are remediated in applications ranging from the production of pharmaceuticals to the treatment of communal waste streams. Likewise, the nuclear energy sector deals with the removal of ionic radioactive substances from water on a daily basis.

Application 1024
Decolourization more efficient in rotating bed reactor than in fixed bed reactor

A fixed bed reactor (FBR), also known as a packed bed reactor or column, is a traditional technology for processes such as adsorption or heterogeneous catalysis. Achieving the required level of purification or conversion means running the liquid through the reactor at a sufficiently low flow rate, and the throughput of a fixed bed reactor is therefore often limited.

Application 1006
Rotating bed reactor faster than stirred tank reactor for a mass transfer limited reaction

Mass transfer limited reactions can create problems for applications like the synthesis of chemical products or the manufacture of active pharmaceutical ingredients. Poor yields, high side-product formation or impractically long reactions are potential issues. Efficient reactor design can greatly improve the mass transfer and remove the limitation to a minimum.

Application 1031
Decolourization in an IBC tank using the ProRBR IBC add-on

Adsorption of methylene blue (3 g, 5 mg/L) onto Purolite® NRW1160 (4.2 L) placed in a SpinChem® S5 RBR operated at 147 rpm. The SpinChem® S5 RBR was placed within a 600 L IBC tank, using the ProRBR IBC add-on, where the tank was filled with water. The data was acquired using a UV-VIS spectrophotometer.  

Application 1034
Decolourization using 79 L of activated carbon in a 7000 L vessel

A large scale decolourization experiment using the SpinChem® rotating bed reactor (RBR) S100, packed with 79 L of activated carbon. The vessel contained 7000 L of water with added methylene blue dye. In under 40 minutes, 95% of the initial concentration of methylene blue was removed from the water, which shows that the RBR S100 can achieve fast reaction times in large scale processes.

Application L1601
Deconstruction of Nordic hardwood in switchable ionic liquids and acylation of the dissolved cellulose

Valerie Eta and Jyri-Pekka Mikkola Carbohydr. Polym., 2016, 136, pp. 459-465.

Application 1033
Deionizing 7000 L of tap water using the SpinChem® RBR S100

The SpinChem® rotating bed reactor (RBR) S100, with a solid phase capacity of 100 L, was used to deionize 7000 L of tap water. The RBR S100 was operating at 160 rpm and filled with 36.5 L of mixed bed ion exchange resin. The results show that the RBR S100 can efficiently process large liquid volumes. As shown by the successful deionization, the performance of the RBR remains high even when it is partially filled, which proves the extreme robustness of the RBR technology.

Application L1401
Enhanced mass transfer upon switchable ionic liquid mediated wood fractionation

Valerie Eta, Ikenna Anugwom, Pasi Virtanen, P. Mäki-Arvelaa, and Jyri-Pekka Mikkola Ind. Crops Prod., 2014, 55, pp. 109-115.

Application L1605
Fibre stress-strain response of high-temperature chemi-thermomechanical pulp treated with switchable ionic liquids

Ran Duan, Bo S. Westerlind, Magnus Norgren, Ikenna Anugwom, Pasi Virtanen, and Jyri-Pekka Mikkola BioRes., 2016, 11(4), pp. 8570-8588.

Application L1603
In quest for the optimal delignification of lignocellulosic biomass using hydrated, SO2 switched DBU MEASIL switchable ionic liquid

Ikenna Anugwoma, Luis Rujana, Johan Wärnå, Mattias Hedenström, and Jyri-Pekka Mikkola Chem. Eng. J., 2016, 297, pp. 256-264.

Application 1037
In-tank deployment of large scale rotating bed reactor

To underscore the use of rotating bed reactors (RBR:s) on scale, a decolorization was performed in a 7500 L tank using ion exchange resin.

Application Brochure
Mass transfer revolutionized

The SpinChem rotating bed reactor (RBR) can eliminate poor mass transfer in heterogeneous reactions during chemical syntheses and biotransformations, preserve catalyst activity, and facilitate recycling of solid phases. This brochure presents our technology and its applications.

Application L2102
New frontiers in enzyme immobilisation: Robust biocatalysts for a circular bio-based economy

Roger A. Sheldon, Alessandra Basso, and Dean Brady Chem. Soc. Rev., 2021, 50(10), pp. 5850-5862.

Application 1045
Pesticide remediation in extracts and oils

Pesticide residue can ruin a batch of a botanical extract, creating large problems for producers. Curated adsorbents, specifically chosen for your situation, can be used to remediate the pesticides. With a rotating bed reactor, you are equipped to respond to contaminants showing up on your test results.

Application L2112
Production of hydroxytyrosol rich extract from Olea europaea leaf with enhanced biological activity using immobilized enzyme reactors

Alexandra V. Chatzikonstantinou, Αrchontoula Giannakopoulou, Stamatia Spyrou, Yannis V. Simos, Vassiliki G. Kontogianni, Dimitrios Peschos, Petros Katapodis, Angeliki C. Polydera, and Haralambos Stamatis Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res., 2022, 29, pp. 29624-29637.

Application L1901
Progress on the pre-treatment of lignocellulosic biomass employing ionic liquids

Pobitra Halder, Sazal Kundu, Savankumar Patel, Adi Setiawan, Rob Atkin, Rajarathinam Parthasarthy, Jorge Paz-Ferreiro, Aravind Surapaneni, and Kalpit Shah Renewable Sustainable Energy Rev., 2019, 105, pp. 268-292.

Application 1036
Screening of activated carbon using the SpinChem® RBR S2

In cooperation with ZHAW, two students screened various types and sizes of activated carbon using the SpinChem® RBR S2. Five different carbons were screened by decolorizing solutions of methylene blue in distilled water. The decolorization process was monitored using inline UV-Vis spectrometry (PAT). The results show the importance of choosing the correct media for your application. In this case of activated carbon, the source and type of the activation was shown to have a major impact on performance.

Application 1044
Simple scale-up using flexible reactors

Research and development quickly takes new directions, and the requirements on a laboratory may vary with every new project. Limiting yourself to equipment with a narrow scope of conditions and applications may become expensive, since new equipment must be acquired for anything out of scope. With budgets quickly consumed by other projects, the need for new equipment may mean significant delays and a reduced capability to take on emerging opportunities.

Application 1009
Multistep synthesis or simultaneous extraction simplified in a rotating bed reactor

The synthesis of products, such as active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs), often involves multiple steps using heterogeneous catalysts or adsorbents. Thus, the simultaneous use of multiple solid phases either during synthesis or downstream processing is frequently highly advantageous.

Application 9003
Simultaneous selective decolouration – Illustrating a concept for cascade reactions

Two dyes were selectively extracted onto different adsorbents within the same run using a SpinChem® rotating bed reactor (RBR) and an EasyMax™ 102 Advanced synthesis workstation. This experiment illustrates performing cascade reaction for one-pot multi-step synthesis.

Application 9004
Treatment of Viscous Solutions – Simple Extraction and In-line Monitoring

Blue dye was removed from a highly viscous liquid using a SpinChem® RBR S2 in an EasyMax™ 102 Advanced Synthesis Workstation. Monitoring of the reaction was easily recorded as no freely suspended ion exchange resin beads or resin debris interfered with the readings. This demonstrates that the RBR technology is extremely well suited for in-line monitoring. The viscosity of the solution was determined to ca 230 cP at 25°C, showing that it is possible to absorb dye even from a highly viscous solution.

Application 1051
How the loading of solids influences reaction speed

Sometimes you don’t want to pack the entire rotating bed reactor full with your solid-phase material. Fully loading might simply be wasteful, or you may want to experiment with your reaction conditions. But how does the amount of solids in the rotating bed reactor influence the reaction performance? Can you use only 10% of the full capacity?

Application L2002
Determination of kinetics and equilibria of heterogeneously catalyzed gas-phase reactions in gradientless autoclave reactors by using the total pressure method: Methanol synthesis

Tapio Salmi, Kari Eränen, Pasi Tolvanen, J.-P. Mikkola, and Vincenzo Russo Chem. Eng. Sci., 2020, 215, 115393.

Application L2004
Advanced oxidation process for degradation of carbamazepine from aqueous solution: influence of metal modified microporous, mesoporous catalysts on the ozonation process

Soudabeh Saeid, Matilda Kråkström, Pasi Tolvanen, Narendra Kumar, Kari Eränen, Jyri-Pekka Mikkola, Leif Kronberg, Patrik Eklund, Markus Peurla, Atte Aho, Andrey Shchukarev and Tapio Salmi Catalysts, 2020, 10(1), 90.

Application L2006
Epoxidation of tall oil catalyzed by an ion exchange resin under conventional heating and microwave irradiation

Adriana Freites Aguilera, Jani Rahkila, Jarl Hemming, Maristiina Nurmi, Gaetan Torres, Théophile Razat, Pasi Tolvanen, Kari Eränen, Sébastien Leveneur, and Tapio Salmi Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., 2020, 59(22), pp. 10397-10406.

Application L2104
Compartmentalization in biocatalysis

Robert Kourist and Javier González‐Sabín In: Biocatalysis for Practitioners: Techniques, Reactions and Applications

Application L2201
A critical review on ibuprofen removal from synthetic waters, natural waters, and real wastewaters by advanced oxidation processes

Enric Brillas Chemosphere, 2022, 286, Part 3, 131849.

Application L2009
Synthesis and characterization of metal modified catalysts for decomposition of ibuprofen from aqueous solutions

Soudabeh Saeid, Matilda Kråkström, Pasi Tolvanen, Narendra Kumar, Kari Eränen, Markus Peurla, Jyri-Pekka Mikkola, Laurent Maël, Leif Kronberg, Patrik Eklund, and Tapio Salmi Catalysts, 2020, 10(7), 786.

Application L2309
Screening, synthesis optimization, and scaling-up of phytopathogen antifungals derived from natural hydroxycinnamic acids

Doddy Denise Ojeda-Hernández, Ana Daniela Vega-Rodríguez, Ali Asaff-Torres, and Juan Carlos Mateos-Díaz 3 Biotech, 2023, 13, 13.

Application 1070
Decolourization of product residues

In the manufacture of liquid products, they may be coloured with appealing and brand-building colourants. During changes of batches, downtimes, or other regular day-to-day operations, coloured product residues are washed out of the process line. These are ideally recycled to minimize waste and maximize utility. For this, however, they need to undergo decolourization. Below we present a customer story in which the SpinChem RBR technoloy was deployed to decolourize viscous product residues.

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