Application 1015
A remote controlled raft for treatment of surface water using rotating bed reactor technology

Time lapse video demonstrating a prototype vehicle capable of processing two cubic metres of coloured water within five minutes. The raft was carrying two rotating bed reactors that neutralized the basic surface water in a square pond by ion exchange.  Keywords: Cleantech, Ion exchange, Seamless scaleup, Technology

Application 1008
Activated carbon decolourization comparing rotating bed reactor and stirred tank reactor

Accelerated video showing the enhanced adsorption rates of methylene blue onto activated carbon using a rotating bed reactor (RBR) compared to a stirred tank reactor (STR). The RBR decolourized the solution almost twice as fast, did not create any visible fines and required no filtration.  Keywords: Activated carbon, Decolouration, Fast reaction, Organic molecules, Simple cleanup, Technology 

Application L1801
Advanced oxidation process for the removal of ibuprofen from aqueous solution: A non-catalytic and catalytic ozonation study in a semi-batch reactor

Degradation of the pharmaceutical compound ibuprofen by ozone, was optimized in batch type reactors with and without zeolite based heterogeneous catalysts. The rotating bed reactor technology increased the concentrations of dissolved gas compared to traditional stirred tank reactors and allowed convenient handling of the catalyst particles without any filtration.  Keywords: Fast reaction, Gas-distribution, Organic molecules, Scientific literature, Zeolite

Application 1012
An externally connected system for large scale heterogeneous downstream processing

Time lapse video illustrating how an externally connected rotating bed reactor (RBR) can pump and process large liquid volumes by the convective flow created by the spinning RBR. The concept enables handling of volumes at least 10-100 times larger than the external vessel, thus facilitating installation of RBR technology into existing plant equipment.  Keywords: Activated carbon, Continuous flow, Decolouration, Organic molecules, Seamless scaleup, Technology

Application 1007
Automated semi-continuous batch processing system with rotating bed reactor

Video showing the principle of an automated rotating bed reactor system capable of filling a solution, neutralizing it by ion exchange and draining it. By microcomputer control, unattended semi-continuous batch processing was accomplished for many cycles until the ion exchanger was completely saturated.  Keywords: Automation, Ion exchange, Seamless scaleup, Technology

Application 1035
Column vs RBR

A performance comparison between a column (fixed bed reactor) and rotating bed reactor (RBR) for de-ionizing 1000 L of tap water. Using best-in-class standard protocols for both technologies, we tested which technology could de-ionize to a desired endpoint conductivity value the quickest. The result show that the RBR is significantly faster, reaching 3.7 times faster a conductivity level of 0.15 µS/cm compared to the column.  Keywords: Cleantech, Deionization, Fast reaction, Technology  

Application 1024
Comparing rotating bed reactor and fixed bed reactor for adsorption purification

Comparison of rotating bed reactor (RBR) technology and fixed bed reactor (FBR) column during activated carbon decolourization. The more efficient use of the adsorbent with a SpinChem® RBR enabled completion of the process within 40% of the time at the same material amount or allowed reduction to 50% material while still being able to finish the process within the same time as the FBR.  Keywords: Activated carbon, Decolouration, Fast reaction, Organic molecules, Purification, Technology  

Application 1006
Comparison of reaction speed with rotating bed reactor and stirred tank reactor

Video revealing the efficient mass transfer and resulting shorter reaction time with a rotating bed reactor (RBR) during ion-exchange neutralization of a base. The reaction with the RBR finished 30% faster and left a completely clear solution without any particles. Keywords: Fast reaction, Ion exchange, Technology

Application 1031
Decolourization in an IBC tank using the ProRBR IBC add-on

Adsorption of methylene blue (3 g, 5 mg/L) onto Purolite® NRW1160 (4.2 L) placed in a SpinChem® S5 RBR operated at 147 rpm. The SpinChem® S5 RBR was placed within a 600 L IBC tank, using the ProRBR IBC add-on, where the tank was filled with water. The data was acquired using a UV-VIS spectrophotometer.  

Application 1034
Decolourization using 79 L of activated carbon in a 7000 L vessel

A large scale decolourization experiment using the SpinChem® rotating bed reactor (RBR) S100, packed with 79 L of activated carbon. The vessel contained 7000 L of water with added methylene blue dye. In under 40 minutes, 95% of the initial concentration of methylene blue was removed from the water, which shows that the RBR S100 can achieve fast reaction times in large scale processes.  Keywords: Activated carbon, Cleantech, Decolouration, Fast reaction

Application L1601
Deconstruction of Nordic hardwood in switchable ionic liquids and acylation of the dissolved cellulose

Valerie Eta, Jyri-Pekka MikkolaCarbohydrate Polymers, 136 (2016) 459-465

Application 1033
Deionizing 7000 L of tap water using the SpinChem® RBR S100

The SpinChem® rotating bed reactor (RBR) S100, with a solid phase capacity of 100 L, was used to deionize 7000 L of tap water. The RBR S100 was operating at 160 rpm and filled with 36.5 L of mixed bed ion exchange resin. The results show that the RBR S100 can efficiently process large liquid volumes. As shown by the successful deionization, the performance of the RBR remains high even when it is partially filled, which proves the extreme robustness of the RBR technology.  Keywords: Ion exchange, Seamless scaleup, Technology  

Mass transfer revolutionized

Learn how SpinChem rotating bed reactors (RBR) can eliminate poor mass transfer in heterogeneous reactions during chemical synthesis and biotransformations. Preserve activity and facilitate recycling of solid phases with the RBR. This brochure shows technology and applications.  Keywords: Biotransformation, Brochure, Fast reaction, Immobilized enzymes, Molecular sieve, Preserved activity, Simple cleanup, Synthesis, Technology

Application 1036
Screening of activated carbon using the SpinChem® RBR S2

In co-operation with ZHAW, two students screened various types and sizes of activated carbon using the SpinChem® RBR S2. Five different carbons were screened by decolorizing solutions of methylene blue in distilled water. The decolorization process was monitored using inline UV-Vis spectrometry (PAT). The results show the importance of choosing the correct media for your application. In this case of activated carbon, the source and type of the activation was shown to have a major impact on performance.  Keywords: Activated carbon, Decolouration, Fast reaction, Rapid screening, Technology

Application 1009
Simultaneous extraction of two dyes selectively onto different resins

Video illustrating how a mixture of red and blue dyes with different chemical properties can be selectively extracted onto different adsorbents within the same run using a rotating bed reactor (RBR). The dyes were separated based on ionic and hydrophobic interactions, respectively.  Keywords: Cleantech, Decolouration, Extraction, Ion exchange, One-pot multistep, Organic molecules, Polymeric resin, Technology

Application 9003
Simultaneous Selective Decolouration – Illustrating a Concept for Cascade Reactions

Two dyes were selectively extracted onto different adsorbents within the same run using a SpinChem® rotating bed reactor (RBR) and an EasyMax™ 102 Advanced synthesis workstation. This experiment illustrates performing cascade reaction for one-pot multi-step synthesis.  Keywords: Cleantech, Decolouration, Extraction, Ion exchange, One-pot multistep, Organic molecules, Polymeric resin, Technology

Application 9004
Treatment of Viscous Solutions – Simple Extraction and In-line Monitoring

Blue dye was removed from a highly viscous liquid using a SpinChem® RBR S2 in an EasyMax™ 102 Advanced Synthesis Workstation. Monitoring of the reaction was easily recorded as no freely suspended ion exchange resin beads or resin debris interfered with the readings. This demonstrates that the RBR technology is extremely well suited for in-line monitoring. The viscosity of the solution was determined to ca 230 cP at 25°C, showing that it is possible to absorb dye even from a highly viscous solution.  Keywords: Decolouration, Extraction, Ion exchange, Mettler-Toledo, Viscous solutions

Application 1037
In-tank deployment of large scale rotating bed reactor

To further demonstrate the use of RBR:s at process scale, a decolorization using ion exchange resin was performed at 7500 L scale. An RBR S14 was filled with strongly acidic cationic resin NRW1160 from Purolite and used to remove blue dye from an aqueous solution in a stainless steel tank of 7500 L volume. The solid-to-liquid ratio is a fraction of percent, showing the efficiency of the RBR technique for convectional mass-transfer and global mixing. The RBR was spun at 340 rpm while the transmittance at 663 nm was monitored for ca 4 h at which point the transmittance had recovered the baseline value for colorless de-ionized water.   Keywords: Ion exchange, Cleantech, Nuclear, Scale-up  

Application L2112
Production of hydroxytyrosol rich extract from Olea europaea leaf with enhanced biological activity using immobilized enzyme reactors

The paper describes work to valorize olive leaves, the major by-product in olive oil production. Aqueous olive leaf extract is rich in oleuropein that was enzymatically hydrolyzed by beta-glucosidase to hydroxytyrosol and other products. Compared to the non-modified extract, the modified one demonstrated 20% higher antioxidant activity, seven-fold higher antibacterial activity, and enhanced cytotoxicity against leiomyosarcoma cells. The beta-glucoside was immobilized in chitosan-coated magnetic beads and used in both stirred tank reactor (STR) and rotating bed reactor (RBR). The immobilized enzyme showed good stability over time and the activity was good in both STR and RBR settings. However, the enzyme beads were damaged mechanically in the STR and could not be re-used. The RBR solved the problem of bead attrition allowing the immobilized enzyme to be re-used and thus giving superior total turnover number to the STR.

Application 1044
Simple scale-up using flexible reactors

Research and development quickly takes new directions, and the requirements on a laboratory may vary with every new project. Limiting yourself to equipment with a narrow scope of conditions and applications may become expensive, since new equipment must be acquired for anything out of scope. With budgets quickly consumed by other projects, the need for new equipment may mean significant delays and a reduced capability to take on emerging opportunities. Many heterogeneous processes (e.g. adsorption or catalysis) are made faster by increasing the solid-to-liquid ratio. Studying scale-up effects can also help to predict full-scale performance. For these reasons it’s wise to invest in equipment that can handle different operating conditions such as liquid volume, solids loading, pH and temperature. The RBR S3 Plus is the most modular rotating bed reactor for laboratory use. Made from two stacked rotating bed reactors, the S3 Plus quickly converts to a single RBR S3 for use with smaller liquid volumes. When used in the dedicated glass reactor system, this yields an operating range of 250 - 1500 mL of liquid and 0 - 140 mL of solids.   This application note investigates the effect of solids loading on the reaction rate of two applications: the adsorption of a dye and a biocatalytic esterification reaction. These two reactions are mass-transport limited and relatively fast. In the first case, an RBR S3 and an RBR S3 Plus were filled with 50 mL and 100 mL respectively of the ion-exchange resin Purolite® NRW1160. Methylene blue was dissolved in water, and the solution was decolorized by spinning an RBR at 600 RPM (reaction conditions in the details below). The results were clear; each case followed 1st order kinetics with a rate constant for the RBR S3 Plus that was twice that of the RBR S3. Note that the solid-to-liquid ratio for the RBR S3 Plus was also twice that of the RBR S3. For the enzymatic esterification, the same rotating bed reactors (RBR S3 and RBR S3 Plus) were filled with 40 mL and 80 mL respectively of the biocatalyst Purolite® immo PS. The rotating bed reactors were used in separate reactions in mixtures of lauric acid, 1-propanol and water. Also in this case the reaction rate was proportional to the solid-to-liquid ratio, yielding twice the productivity with the RBR S3 Plus compared to the RBR S3. The conclusion is that with a rotating bed reactor you are making the most out of the solid-phase. Doubling the amount of catalyst or adsorbent will generally double the reaction rate constant, which makes scaling up straightforward. Contact us today to discuss how we can scale your process.

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